Για κάποιους σίγουρα έχει αξία και η γνώμη τέτοιων φορέων όπως η Ουνέσκο.

Παρακάτω λοιπόν παρατίθεται πλήρης έκθεση της Ουνέσκο όσον αφορά την ανάπτυξη των παιδιών διαμέσου της εξάσκησης τους με τις πολεμικές τέχνες.

Είναι μια απ’ τις πιο άρτιες μελέτες που έχουμε δει που αποδεικνύει το πόσο ωφελούν οι πολεμικές τέχνες στην ανάπτυξη των νέων.

Αυτή η έκθεση, Youth Development through Martial Arts: Selected Good Practices, αναπτύχθηκε μέσω της συνεργασίας του International Center of Martial Arts for Youth Development
and Engagement της UNESCO, της Δημοκρατίας της Κορέας και της Περιφερειακής Μονάδας
Κοινωνικών & Ανθρωπιστικών Επιστημών της Μπανγκόκ της UNESCO.

Πρόθεσή της UNESCO είναι να παρέχει μια επιλογή καλών πρακτικών από τις πολεμικές τέχνες σχετικά με την ανάπτυξη των νέων και την ενδυνάμωση των νέων, που αξιολογούνται μέσω μιας αυστηρής ακαδημαϊκής μεθόδου για τον προσδιορισμό της αποτελεσματικότητας και του αντίκτυπου τους. Ο συνοδευτικός τόμος Ανάπτυξη νέων μέσω πολεμικών τεχνών: ένα πλαίσιο αξιολόγησης για τις δραστηριότητες της νεολαίας παρέχει πρόσθετες λεπτομέρειες σχετικά με τη μέθοδο αξιολόγησης και τον τρόπο που αναπτύχθηκε. Οι καλές πρακτικές που παρουσιάζονται σε αυτήν την έκθεση έχουν επιλεγεί μέσω μιας συστηματικής προσέγγισης που εξετάζει τις πρακτικές αρκετών υφιστάμενων
προγραμμάτων νεολαίας που βασίζονται σε πολεμικές τέχνες που συμβάλλουν στη θετική ανάπτυξη των νέων και την ενδυνάμωση των νέων σε διάφορα μέρη του κόσμου. Ενώ τα επιτόπια στοιχεία και οι καλές πρακτικές που συλλέγονται σε αυτή την έκθεση είναι σε μεγάλο βαθμό ανέκδοτα, η φύση των προγραμμάτων, ο ενθουσιασμός των νέων που συμμετέχουν και οι προσωπικές ιστορίες θετικών μετασχηματισμών της ζωής είναι ιδιαίτερα συναρπαστικές.
Με εντολή να προστατεύει και να προωθεί τον αθλητισμό, το ενδιαφέρον της UNESCO για την ανάπτυξη των νέων μέσω του αθλητισμού αποτελεί μέρος μιας ευρύτερης ατζέντας για την
ποσοτικοποίηση του αντίκτυπου του αθλητισμού στη βιώσιμη ανάπτυξη σε διαφορετικά πλαίσια. Το σχέδιο δράσης του Καζάν1 και το αντίστοιχο πλαίσιο παρακολούθησης του MINEPS,
που εγκρίθηκε από την έκτη Διεθνή Διάσκεψη Υπουργών και Ανώτερων Αξιωματούχων
Αρμόδιων για τη Φυσική Αγωγή και τον Αθλητισμό (MINEPS VI), παρέχουν μια γενική, κοινή
αναφορά για τη δόμηση της αθλητικής πολιτικής που ενσωματώνεται στην Η Ατζέντα των Ηνωμένων Εθνών 2030 και οι Στόχοι Βιώσιμης Ανάπτυξης. Από τους τρεις τομείς πολιτικής που
αντικατοπτρίζονται στο σχέδιο δράσης του Καζάν,
το θέμα II είναι αφιερωμένο στη «μεγιστοποίηση της συμβολής του αθλητισμού στη βιώσιμη ανάπτυξη και την ειρήνη».
Αναγνωρίζει επίσης συγκεκριμένα τη σημασία της ενδυνάμωσης των νέων να οδηγήσουν την αλλαγή

YOUTH DEVELOPMENT
THROUGH MARTIAL ARTS
SELECTED GOOD PRACTICES

Published in 2019 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France; UNESCO Office in Bangkok, 920 Sukhumvit Rd., Prakanong, Klongtoei, Bangkok 10110, Thailand, and the International Centre of Martial Arts for Youth Development and Engagement under the auspices of UNESCO (UNESCO-ICM), 27339, International Centre of Martial Arts, 5th floor, Eutteumro 21, Chungju-si, Chungcheongbukdo, (Geumreung-dong, Chungju City Hall), Republic of Korea
© UNESCO and UNESCO-ICM 2019
ISBN 978-92-9223-616-8 (Print version)
ISBN 978-92-9223-615-1 (Electronic version)
This publication is available in Open Access under the Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO (CC-BY-SA 3.0 IGO) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/igo/). By using the content of this publication, the users accept to be bound by the terms of use of the UNESCO Open Access Repository (http://www.unesco.org/open-access/ terms-use-ccbysa-en).
The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO and UNESCO-ICM concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors; they are not necessarily those of UNESCO and UNESCO-ICM and do not commit the Organization.
This report was written by Caroline Baxter Tresise, Dr Colin Higgs and Dr Sue Vize utilizing research conducted by Dr Colin Higgs, Caroline Baxter Tresise and Richie Steward. The draft was reviewed by Dr Fred Coalter, Dr Joo Hee Park, Dr Jung Heon Kim, Philipp Mueller-Wirth, Dr Benno Böer, Christian Dohrmann, David Young, Nick Crang and Tim Bender and edited by Dr Sue Vize.
UNESCO would like to thank Michal Buchel, Chief Executive Office, International Sambo Federation and Mr Stephan Fox, Vice President of the Global Association of International Sports Federations and General Secretary of the International Federation of Muaythai Amateur for supporting and contributing to the report.
This project was made possible through the support of the International Centre of Martial Arts for Youth Development and Engagement, a Category II Center under the auspices of UNESCO supported by the Government of Korea.
Cover photo: © Asociación Proyecto Alto Perú Production coordinator: Sirisak Chaiyasook Graphic design: Alessandro Mearini
TH/C3-4164/SHS/19/006-1000
ii

UNESCO remarks
We place a lot of expectations on young people. Youth face a multitude of challenges and still we expect them to be positive development actors to support their communities to achieve peace and development. To reinforce such efforts needs sustained support to build skills, confidence and commitment to realizing these expectations.
UNESCO has a history of supporting youth in a proactive way that puts youth at the centre of programme development and design. Working in martial arts should be no different – the young people need opportunities to express their needs and utilize their energy and talents. Our role is essentially to help to make such youth-led action a reality.
Understanding how we can be effective through martial arts programmes is fundamental to being able to provide quality support that will help to achieve real progress. This work brings together the findings of the technical study by Dr Colin Higgs, Youth Development through Martial Arts: a Framework for Sport for Development, and presents this knowledge together with practical examples from existing martial arts programmes working for youth from around the world.
Many martial arts federations and community organizations have recognized the great potential of martial arts to be used as a positive force to improve the lives of young women and men. The selected examples in this volume illustrate the diversity in these programmes, which have been designed for many different reasons from improving access to employment to physical safety.
Key aspects for all effective programmes, are clear objectives, good design and understanding whether you are achieving your aims. The evaluation provides a systematic way to measure these elements and the draft principles are intended as a first step in providing straightforward guidance on how you can do this, or improve the way you are currently doing things.
We acknowledge the excellent work of Dr Higgs and express our sincere gratitude to the International Centre of Martial Arts for Youth Development and Engagement for supporting this project.
Shigeru Aoyagi
Director UNESCO Bangkok
iii

Special note from the secretary-general of the ICM
The ‘International Centre of Martial Arts for Youth Development and Engagement under the auspices of UNESCO (ICM)’ is committed to promoting martial arts as an educational tool for the development and social engagement of youth and women.
It is my pleasure to convey my gratitude, on behalf of the International Centre of Martial Arts for Youth Development and Engagement under the auspices of UNESCO (ICM), to the UNESCO Bangkok Office, the International Federation of Muaythai Amateur (IFMA) and the experts in physical education & youth development who have endeavored to create this Evaluation Framework and Martial Arts Good Practices Guide for Youth Development.
As examples of sports practices and intangible cultural heritage, the importance of martial arts for young people cannot be overstated. Martial arts can foster intercultural dialogue, ethical sport practices and also act as an empowering tool for youth development.
The ICM was officially established in December 2016, with the clear objective of utilizing martial arts as an educational method to teach young people the values and life skills that are needed to build a peaceful and non-violent culture, including respect for oneself and others, self-discipline, fair play, resiliency and respect for cultural diversity.
Along with the overarching objective of the ICM, we have prepared this “Good Practices Guide” in cooperation with the UNESCO Bangkok office, in order to share the underpinning theories for martial arts education. This guide will play a role as a practical indicator for martial arts instructors and policy-makers in consolidating youth martial arts education.
Once again, thank you in advance for all of your support of the ICM. We will also keep implementing our duty as a crucial institution for martial arts development, especially for youth and women.
Kim Si Hyun
Secretary-General ICM
iv

Table of contents
UNESCO remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Special note from the secretary-general of the ICM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Preface ………………………………………………………………………… vii
PARTONE:MARTIALARTSFORYOUTHDEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 The case for investing in youth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 The added value of martial arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Psycho-social development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ………………………………………………. 5 Protection and safeguarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ………………………………………………. 8 Risk of injury in martial arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ………………………………………………. 8 Gender equality in martial arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ………………………………………………. 9 What does this mean for youth development? ………………………………………………. 10
PARTTWO:DESIGNINGFORGOODPRACTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1 How martial arts can be used in positive youth development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2 Using developmentally appropriate activities in youth-focused martial arts programmes . . 12
Development objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Building youth resilience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3 The different types of organizations delivering martial arts youth programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Martial arts specific organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Issue specific organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Location specific organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.4 Appropriate design for youth-oriented martial arts programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Experiential learning model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Right to Play model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
PART THREE: EXAMPLES OF YOUTH DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MARTIAL ARTS . . 25 3.1 Examples of good practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Transforming cities through sport, Malabon City, Philippines
………………………………….. 28 ………………………………….. 31 ………………………………….. 33 ………………………………….. 35 ………………………………….. 37 ………………………………….. 39 ………………………………….. 41 ………………………………….. 43 ………………………………….. 45 ………………………………….. 47
Sport Is Your Gang . . . . . . . . . . . . …. Fight for Peace/Luta Pela Paz . …. World Taekwondo Peace Corps …. Nari Uddug Kendra . . . . . . . . . . . …. Empire Fighting Chance . . . . . . …. Okichitaw Martial Arts Programme Skillshare International . . . . . . . . . . . . Sharing Youth Centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alto Perú . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
…………………… .. …………………… .. …………………… .. …………………… .. …………………… .. …………………… .. …………………… .. …………………… .. …………………… ..
v

Escuela Kawsay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Teen Moms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 East LA Muaythai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.2 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 PART FOUR: YOUTH DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES FOR MARTIAL ARTS
ORGANIZATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 References …………………………………………………………………….. 59
List of figures
Figure 1: Figure 2:
Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6:
Figure 7: Figure 8:
A Simple Black Box relationship between participation in martial arts and
psycho-social outcomes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Factors contributing to positive or negative psycho-social outcomes from martial arts participation ………………………………………………………………… 7
Graduated“return to play”following concussion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stages of human development across multiple domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of impact of stage of development on sport for development activities
The simplified relationship between seven components of resilience, enhanced participant resilience and desired social, health and educational outcomes. . . . . .
The experiential learning model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Right to Play model of pedagogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. . … …
… … …
…. . 9 ….. 14 ….. 15
….. 20 ….. 23 ….. 24
….. 13
List of tables
Table 1: Breakdown of the human lifespan into developmental stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2: Differences in programme focus based on two developmental ages across multiple
domains……………………………………………………………………… 16 Table 3: Resilience resources at individual, family, and social/environment levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 4: Ways to build resilience in youth-oriented martial arts programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
vi

Preface
This report, Youth Development through Martial Arts: Selected Good Practices, was developed through the collaboration of the UNESCO International Centre of Martial Arts for Youth Development and Engagement, Republic of Korea and UNESCO Bangkok Regional Unit for Social & Human Sciences. Its intention is to provide a selection of good practices from martial arts on youth development and youth empowerment, evaluated through a rigorous academic method to determine their effectiveness and impact. The companion volume Youth Development through Martial Arts: an Evaluation Framework for Youth Activities provides additional detail on the evaluation method and how it was developed.
The good practices presented in this report have been selected through a systematic approach reviewing the practices of several existing martial arts-based youth programmes that contribute to positive youth development and youth empowerment in diverse parts of the world. While the field evidence and good practices collected in this report are largely anecdotal, the nature of the programmes, the enthusiasm of the youth involved and the personal stories of positive life transformations are particularly compelling.
Mandated to protect and promote sport, UNESCO’s interest in youth development through sport is part of a broader agenda to quantify the impact of sport on sustainable development in different contexts. The Kazan Action Plan1 and the corresponding MINEPS Follow-up Framework, adopted by the sixth International Conference of Ministers and Senior Officials Responsible for Physical Education and Sport (MINEPS VI), provide an overarching, common reference for structuring sport policy that is integrated with the United Nations 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals. Of the three policy areas reflected in the Kazan Action Plan, theme II is dedicated to “maximizing the contribution of sport to sustainable development and peace”. It also specifically recognizes the importance of empowering youth to drive change.
In 2018, the United Nations launched Youth 2030: The UN Youth Strategy2 (Youth Strategy). Designed to orient and inform youth programming within the UN
1 UNESCO (2016)
2 United Nations (2018)
system, the Youth Strategy focuses on strengthening engagement with young people improving their lives through quality education and health, including sexuality education, economic empowerment, human rights, and civic and political engagement. Martial arts can be adapted to have an impact on all five areas of the Youth-SWAP. Its most valuable, cost-effective impact can be made in informal settings, such as gyms, community centres or public parks. This is due to its universal appeal and special ability to engage at-risk youth where other sports may be less appealing.
Academic enquiry into martial arts is broadening, with a number of journals and publications emerging in recent years (e.g., Journal of Asian Martial Arts, Archives of Budo, Journal of Chinese Martial Studies, IDO Movement for Culture, Electronic Journals of Martial Arts and Sciences, Classical Fighting Arts). A 2010 study on the socio-psychological outcomes of martial arts practice among youth reveal its popularity globally, with some form of martial art (i.e. boxing, judo, karate, taekwondo) being one of the ten most practised sports in five countries surveyed (the Netherlands, Australia, France, Finland and Canada). Unsurprisingly given its origins, engagement in martial arts in Asia remains high, with several Governments claiming a particular form as their national sport (Taekwondo in Korea, Muaythai in Thailand, Sumo in Japan, Wrestling in Iran, for example).
In 2013, the Republic of Korea established the first International Centre of Martial Arts for Youth Development and Engagement under the auspices of UNESCO. The Centre seeks to promote and protect martial arts for their cultural and historical value, as well as support humanitarian interventions using martial arts for youth development and youth empowerment.
This publication forms part of the International Centre of Martial Arts for Youth Development and Engagement and UNESCO’s work on the implementation of the Kazan Action Plan.
vii

PART ONE
MARTIAL ARTS
FOR YOUTH DEVELOPMENT
© ICM
1

1 .1 Introduction
Irrespective of where they are in the world, youth face significant risks and challenges. They are especially vulnerable to violence, poverty, exploitation and exclusion; in particular youth belonging to vulnerable or marginalized groups or those living in situations of crisis or conflict. Young women and girls face additional risks, as well as youth that identify as other genders. In many countries, programmes and services to support the healthy development of youth are inadequate and the systems in place to support their implementation are fragile and inconsistent.
Nearly half the current global population is younger than 25 years of age, making it the largest ever generation of youth and children. Given the right support and opportunities, youth can play a significant role in moving the world closer to achieving the ambitious United Nations Agenda 2030 / Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, the vast majority of young people live in developing countries where quality of life varies greatly and their life-chances may be hampered by poverty and crisis.
The use of sport in pursuit of national and international development objectives has traditionally been associated with the development of elite sport to raise the international profile of a particular country, advance a particular sport, or to promote the health and well- being of citizens. Interest in sport as a tool for positive social transformations is relatively new (since the 1990s). Although Sport for Development is still an emerging field, it has attracted the interests of development practitioners seeking cost-effective, creative and high-impact solutions to development challenges, especially in the area of health and well-being. The type of sport used is often left the individual preferences of those designing (or funding) the programme.
Community programmes play a significant role, as often it is those living close to the issues that want to take action. They don’t rely on donors or development partners but use their own resources to take action independently. Sporting organisations are among those community programme hosts that can take this kind of action.
The nature of grass-roots sport for development programmes has both advantages and disadvantages. These programmes are almost all delivered locally by
2
local champions responding to immediate problems in their communities, which is an important foundation for their success. However, programmes developed using this “bottom-up” approach are generally resource scarce and operate independently of the Government or established institutions. Without a detailed understanding of their technical issues and design, the delivery of grass-roots sport for development programmes is often unpredictable and infrequent. In situations where these programmes do not connect with the broader national development priorities of their Governments, or when Governments design local interventions that are not based on the needs of those living in the communities, they are not likely to be successful.
While there are many grass-roots youth-focused martial arts programmes currently active around the world, these programmes are often led by martial arts enthusiasts or practitioners in club or gym settings, rather than by development practitioners or professionals trained in youth development pedagogy. This approach raises questions over the quality of the programmes, the qualifications of the instructors and ultimately, the effectiveness and safety for the youth involved.
The safeguarding of children and youth participating in sport is an increasingly prominent concern for policymakers and development practitioners. Instances of varied forms of abuse and exploitation against children and youth by coaches, teachers, instructors and teammates in sport-settings are quite regularly reported. Despite some initiatives to develop safeguarding measures from sport practitioners, there is growing international interest in developing evidence-based policies and standards to protect children and youth involved in sport. Recognized explicitly in the Kazan Action Plan, safeguarding systems must be embedded into all sport programming to ensure positive sport experiences.
It is important to note that martial arts by their nature raise the potential for injury and therefore strict adherence to safeguarding measures is essential. This factor may also attract the participation of young people seeking to be tough or learn fighting skills. Martial arts programmes teach respect and self-control, both key elements in the heritage of martial arts and part of the modern practice.
Part one: Martial arts for youth development
Youth development

Selected good practices
Part one: Martial arts for youth development
1 .2 The case for investing in youth
The largest ever generation of youth aged 15 to 24 years is close to 1.8 billion, of whom nearly 90% live in developing countries3. Despite considerable progress in areas such as education, health and employment, there are many youth who are still left behind: they are not benefiting greatly from this progress. Involving these young people in programmes to support the transition to adulthood and addressing key challenges including illiteracy, unemployment and marginalization remains a global priority.
There is no globally accepted definition of youth: even within the UN a range of definitions are applied, though 30 years is generally the upper limit. At the national level, this is even broader where upper limits may be as high as 45 years. For the purposes of this report, a flexible approach will be applied, the important factor being that programmes with specific development goals aimed at young people (including children) will be the focus.
Youth start from a point of lower status, fewer income- generation opportunities and limits to their voice and behaviour, often excluding them from decision-making. In a world with increasing inequality, youth are often further marginalized by ethnicity, gender, social class or disability. They are over-represented in a number of vulnerable or marginalized groups, including the unemployed, people living in poverty and those without access to resources. Young women and men clearly have vulnerabilities that we should and must address to ensure their transition to adulthood. Targeting youth as beneficiaries of development programmes has clear benefits for national productivity, lower health costs, peace building and many other aspect of socio- “economic development.
Young people are diverse, with distinct needs and interests shaped by their gender, context, ability, wealth, and age. For all of them, however, youth is a time of transition: from school to work, from dependence to autonomy, and into sexual maturity.
Youth are also actors in development and often play an important role in initiating and leading action themselves. Designing youth programmes that respond to development challenges and to playing a role as enablers of youth as actors is at the centre of UNESCO’s Operational Strategy on Youth.
“5 Investment in this age cohort is an effective
development strategy because it generates chan”
ges that will last throughout their lifetime, with higher
absolute returns than investment in older adults.6
The linkages between youth development and sport
Investment in youth generates the greatest retu”
are clear. Some of the critical challenges we face are the epidemic of non-communicable diseases, effective ways to deal with mental illness and promote psycho-social well-being, and addressing violence, discrimination and abuses of human rights. Sport can be used to teach healthy living, promote well-being and foster intercultural dialogue and peace building. It fosters cognitive development, which has a range of wider benefits in all aspects of learning, socialization and well-being.
Non-communicable diseases are the leading global cause of death, causing more deaths than all other causes combined. People in low- and middle- income countries are disproportionately affected, and in these countries they kill at a younger age and disproportionately in lower socio-economic groups.7 Sedentary lifestyles, smoking and unhealthy diets are the leading causes of disease, and the harmful affects of these could be significantly reduced through sport and physical activity programmes. Importantly, it is behaviours developed during childhood and adolescence that influence our lifestyles later in life, including physical activity and diet. Although youth are less at-risk, it is important to address the risk factors during these formative years as investing in young people is an effective development strategy, because it generates changes that will last throughout their lifetime.8
rns when started in early childhood and continued
through these transitions.4
3 ODI (2013) 4 ibid
5 UNESCO Operational Strategy on Youth 6 ODI as above
7 World Health Organization (2010)
8 ODI (2013)
3

Global Health Observatory data 2015 reveals suicide as the second largest cause of death globally for youth between 15 to 29 years of age, with interpersonal or domestic violence being the third.9 Investment in youth therefore needs to deal with mental health issues and address violence and abuse.
in sport specifically promote social cohesion and intercultural understanding, and therein “peace, to combat issues of violence and abuse.13
The goal of Olympism is to place sport at the service of the harmonious development of man, with
Approximately 20% of youth globally experience a mental health issue each year, which creates significant socio-economic challenges, as well as associated healthcare costs. In the regions of the world with the highest youth populations, mental health resources are often scarce. The World Health Organization cites that most low to middle income countries have only one available child psychiatrist between 1 and 4 million people. In areas affected by conflict or disaster (which disproportionately affect the poorest countries), mental health disorders tend to double.10 Efforts to provide adequate services to support youth suffering from mental health problems are hindered by negative cultural attitudes towards mental illness in both high and low income countries. The World Economic Forum estimates the global cost of mental health issues in terms of lost economic output to be $16 trillion over the next two decades, of which youth are the group most affected.11
Violence and abuse can take many forms: physical, emotional, sexual and economic, and includes forms of intimidation, bullying and isolation. Youth are especially vulnerable to non-physical violence or abuse due to their lack of autonomy and voice. They are expected to do as they are told, and not to speak up. The increasing interconnectivity of the world, especially the rise of social media, has created new forms of intimidation and bullying through cyber-spaces. UNESCO has found that children who are considered vulnerable for varying reasons are also often at a greater risk of suffering from violence and bullying.12 This is especially the case for girls, young women and young people who identify as other genders. Strong social and cultural norms often reinforce the gender bias in bullying.
In addition to playing a specific and direct role in improved health and well-being, the traditional principles of friendship, respect and excellence
9 World Health Organization (2015)
10 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2012) 11 World Health Organization (2013)
12 UNESCO (2017)
4
ned with the preservation of human dignity.
Part one: Martial arts for youth development
a view to promoting a peaceful society concer”
– Fundamental Principles of Olympism, Olympic Charter14
The inclusion of sport in youth development programmes can elevate their scale to a much greater level as the outreach of sport is enormous, as is the appeal, which spans cultures, languages, academic abilities and age. The Overseas Development Institute (ODI), an international think tank, proposes investment for youth development with six target areas: post- primary education; work and livelihoods; sexual and reproductive health and healthy lives; environmental sustainability; conflict and crime; and civic engagement. Investment in each area both supports and is dependent on progress in the others. Sport can be adapted to support youth programmes in all of these areas, when the programmes are specifically designed for this purpose, further expanding its potential as a development tool.
© ICM
13 ODI as above 14 IOC (n.d.)
Youth development

Selected good practices
Part one: Martial arts for youth development
1 .3 The added value of martial arts
Usually with rich cultural histories and elements of philosophy and mutual respect, the practice of martial arts is often described as energy intensive, focused and a source of tension release. Advocates for martial arts claim additional benefits, such as increased patience, tolerance and confidence, associated with both the obvious physical transformations through regular practice and the sense of being self-confident. In the face of bullying, abuse or violence, this self confidence can help young people to build positive responses, especially for women, girls and vulnerable groups building self-worth and self-confidence is very important.
Martial arts practitioner and youth coach Richie Steward from New Zealand, who contributed to the research on martial arts youth programmes around the world, describes the practice of martial arts as a framework for both mental and physical health. Particularly suited to youth suffering from social isolation or victims of abuse, the emphasis of martial arts for youth development is often on teaching respect, self-control and discipline through regular practice.
Psycho-social development
The specific value of martial arts to promote mental health among youth and support individual functioning and well-being can be demonstrated in different contexts. Examples include the Sport Is Your Gang programme that originated in Bangkok, Thailand, to provide spaces for young people in low income, inner city areas; Fight for Peace in Brazil and England, which was established to support the rehabilitation of youth suffering from chronic substance abuse; or Escuela Kawsay in Lima, Peru in which at-risk youth are building their own gyms in their local neighbourhoods. Other programmes target youth vulnerable to different kinds of abuse and violence, such as Nari Udduf Kendra, which has a self-defence element for females, or the Teen Moms programme in Lima, Peru, which seeks to provide psycho-social support through sport to female victims of sexual assault resulting in teenage pregnancy.
A study by Vertonghen & Theeboom (2010) into the social-psychological impacts of martial arts programmes is the most comprehensive review of the impact of martial arts on youth development to date. Out of 380 papers considered, 27 that met the following criteria were analysed:
1 . Only studies measuring social-psychological outcomes of practicing a martial art were included;
2 . Studies in which martial arts were incorporated as part of a larger intervention programme, were excluded;
3 . Studies evaluating self-defence programmes were also excluded;
4 . If the research methodology used was unclear or the study authors reported many limitations, the study was excluded;
5 . Studieswereexcludedifthetargetpopulationwas specialized (e.g. persons with a disability);
6 . Studies were limited to those from the mid-1990s onward, with the exception of major earlier studies;
7 . Only studies in English, French or Dutch were included.
The study revealed significantly more evidence to support positive psycho-social outcomes from participation in martial arts than evidence to support negative outcomes. The major findings include specific outcomes in the areas of greater self-esteem; greater confidence; reduced aggression and greater self- control (risk-aversion).
The evaluation framework developed for reviewing good practices in youth development through martial arts15 offers a useful explanation for contradictory findings, comparing martial arts programming to a ‘black box’ analogy: Individuals participating in martial arts experience a variety of brain functions that may lead to positive societal and psychological outcomes. The exact effect of cognitive change is difficult to measure, and whether positive or negative outcomes are found depends on the social and psychological outcomes being measured, as well as on the neurological processes in the brain of the participants.
15 Higgs (2018)
5

Whether these outcomes can be attributed to the specific activity is another point of contention among the academic community attempting to measure the impact of youth development programmes on individuals and communities.
Figure 1 below illustrates a simple Black Box relationship between participation in martial arts and psycho- social outcomes.
What is inside the black box depends on the structural qualities of the specific martial art examined, the social context of participation, characteristics of the participants and the instructional pedagogy used.
Participation in Martial Arts Programme
Structural Quality of the Martial Art: This is the type of martial art used in the intervention. There are many different types of martial arts, although they can generally be viewed as “Hard” or “Soft.”
Hard Martial Arts – those in which the most important characteristics are hitting, striking and kicking.
Soft Martial Arts – those in which the most important characteristics are absorbing and deflecting.
Characteristics of the Participants: A variety of partici- pant characteristics influence the impact of martial arts programmes on social and psychological outcomes.
Positive social and psychological outcomes
Negative social and psychological outcomes
Part one: Martial arts for youth development
Black Box
Where things happen in the brain
of the participant
Figure 1: A Simple Black Box relationship between participation in martial arts and psycho-social outcomes
Age: The developmental age of participants determines their capacity to learn physical and psychological skills, their emotional response/ control, and moral reasoning.
Sex: Little information is available on sex differences in response to martial arts training. However, it should be noted that females appear more susceptible to concussion in recreational, hard, martial arts.16
Socio-economic status: The available evidence suggests that children and youth with lower socio- economic status are more attracted to “harder” martial arts, with a stronger focus on efficiency, where efficiency is a focus on “winning” in a formal competition setting. Children and youth with higher socio-economic status appear more attracted to the softer martial arts where there is a higher focus on mastery of movement and skills, and on progress achieved.
16 Koh, Cassidy, and Watkinson. (2003) 6
Instructional Pedagogy: The literature describes three distinct types of martial arts pedagogies.17
Traditional: Traditional pedagogy places emphasis on respect for the rules of the gym (dojo), respect for the masters of the craft (sensei, kru), respect for opponents, and respect for the traditions and forms of the specific martial art.
Educational Sporting: An educational sporting approach to pedagogy places martial arts within the standard youth-sport paradigm, with emphasis on developing martial arts skill and performance in competition through standard coaching approaches.
Efficiency: Efficiency pedagogy focuses on results – most usually the results in sparring. In contrast to traditional and educational sporting approaches, there is greater flexibility in permitting individual variations in technique if a variation improves performance outcomes.
17 Vertonghen, Theeboom & Cloes (2012)
Youth development

Selected good practices
Characteristics of the participants
Low SES 1 participants
High SES 2 participants
Structural qualities of martial art
Instructional pedagogy
Social context of participation
Probability of outcome
More likely
More likely
Part one: Martial arts for youth development
Implications for youth-development vary according to the differences in teaching styles and can best be illustrated through their approaches to inappropriate behaviour. While there will be individual differences in approach between individual instructors, in general instructors using the different approaches respond as follows:
Traditional: Participant is removed from the situation, instructed to return to the mat and kneel in the same manner as for opening ceremonies, to close his or her eyes, and to think about the way they behaved until they are ready to return to the class.
Efficiency: Participant is moved to sparring with an older or more advanced student who imposes discipline on them. The potential in this approach is to reinforce with the misbehaving student that the use of force is an acceptable method of changing behaviour.
Educational Sporting: Usually a combination of traditional and efficiency methods.
Social Context of participation: From the literature, this component of the “black box” is least easily described in sport for development appropriate terms. In simplified form, this can be considered the “internal” or “external” focus of the participant with respect to his or her belief in the nature of the body-mind link, which can be either:
External/Instrumental: Where the “mind” sees the body as that part of them that impacts and interacts with the world around them. Put simple, the body is the object with which a person “does” something.
Internal: Where what happens to the body, or what the body does in martial arts participation influences the mind and changes the way the person thinks and acts.
The four elements of the “black box” theory (see Figure 2) are not universally agreed and are not fully understood. In addition, they interact in complex ways. The figure below simplifies these complex interactions to illustrate the conditions most and least likely to lead to positive or negative social and psychological outcomes for youth.
Simplified probability chain of Black Box contributions to increased probability of positive or negative outcomes from martial arts participation
Greater likelihood of negative outcome
Greater likelihood of positive outcome
More likely
More likely
Hard martial arts
Soft martial arts
More likely
More likely
Traditional Efficiency Education/Sport
Traditional Efficiency Education/Sport
More likely
More likely
External Internal
External Internal
Note 1: Outcome of martial arts participation far more likely to be positive than negative.
Note 2: There are no available data on which to calculate the cumulative probability of positive or negative based on the individual contributions of
SES, pedagogy, style of martial art [or] social context. [SES = socioeconomic status] Figure 2: Factors contributing to positive or negative psycho-social outcomes from martial arts participation
7

Protection and safeguarding
Most literature in this area was developed for programmes involving children, but the principles also apply to programmes working with youth, as their care and well-being must still remain a key concern. While child protection is about keeping children and adolescents safe from neglect and physical, psychological and sexual abuse, child safeguarding extends this concept. The UK Government defines the t“erm ‘safeguarding children’ as:
The process of protecting children from abuse or neglect, preventing impairment of their health and development, and ensuring they are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care that enables children to have optimum life chances and enter adulthood successfully.”18
Of greater concern is the risk of head injuries, especially as future impacts of damage to the brain may be unpredictable in children. Data on exact numbers of concussions in martial arts are difficult to locate, and with different reports using different criteria and time scales, the exact extent of the problem remains unknown.
Minimizing the risk of head injury caused during participation in any sport should be an important consideration and embedded into the programme design, particularly as concussions are difficult to detect and if left untreated, they can result in permanent brain damage and may even be fatal. Medical authorities have become increasingly concerned about the long- term impact of concussed athletes, particularly young athletes, returning to exercise and competition before the injury is fully resolved.
For this reason, all organizations instructing martial arts should comply with internationally developed protocols. The “Return to Play” protocol was developed based on the international “Consensus statement on concussion in sport, Berlin, 2016”, a revision and update20 of the recommendations from the International Conference on Concussion in Sport.21 The protocol provides an important framework to protect participants in sport from excess damage following a concussion. Figure 3 (see page 9) illustrates this protocol.
It should be noted that many other high-impact contact sports such as rugby, hockey, soccer and football, as well as high-velocity sports such as skiing, bicycling and motor sports carry similar risks of concussion.22 Furthermore, the likelihood of a concussion occurring during martial arts competition varies significantly between the types of martial arts.
The extension of protection and safeguarding to all youth is important and is not limited to one setting, it should be a continuous process embedded into the core of the programme and mainstreamed into every activity. To ensure the safety of participants in the sport, all instructors, staff and programme managers should be regularly trained to follow protection and safeguarding principles. Screening of all staff engaged with children and youth, including background checks and references, should be a requirement.
Risk of injury in martial arts
The simulated, and in competition, the real nature of martial arts makes it likely that injuries, including concussions, will occur from time to time. A 2008 study of 282 practitioners of boxing, kick-boxing, judo, jujutsu and karate at elite level found the most frequent injuries to be broken bones (21%) and damage to knee ligaments (16%) followed by the less frequent occurrences of eyebrow ridge cuts, elbow injuries, knocked out teeth (all consist 1%) and tensioned muscles, strained muscles, fractured bones, strained Achilles’ tendon, hand injuries, bruises, hurts and injuries of an eye (all consist 2%).19
18 HM Government, Department for Education and Skills (2006) 19 Cynarski & Kudlacz (2008)
8
20 Revisions Vienna, 2001; Prague, 2004; Zurich, 2008; and Zurich, 2012 21 McRory et al (2017)
22 As per CDC Traumatic Brain Injury Statistics Data
Part one: Martial arts for youth development

Youth development

Selected good practices
Post Concussion Return to Play
1
NO ACTIVITY
(Recovery)
Complete physical and cognitive rest until medical clearance
Symptom Free for 24 hours?
2
LIGHT AEROBIC EXERCISE (Increased heart rate)
Walking Swimming Stationary Bike
Heart rate
< 70% – 15min
Symptom Free for Next 24 hours?
3
SPORT SPECIFIC EXERCISE (Add movement)
Activity that is appropriate to the sport Skating Running Swimming
Heart rate
< 80% – 45min
Symptom Free for Next 24 hours?
4
NON-CONTACT TRAINING DRILLS (Increase exercise, coordination and attention)
Progress to complete and normal non-contact training drills
Heart rate
< 90% – 60min
Symptom Free for Next 24 hours?
5
FULL CONTACT PRACTICE (Restore confidence and assess functional skills)
If symptom free, return to normal training activities
Symptom Free for Next 24 hours?
Part one: Martial arts for youth development
NO NO NO NO NO
Continue resting
YES
Begin Step 2
Continue resting until symptom free
YES
Move to step 3
Return to Step 2 until symptom free
YES
Move to step 4
Return to Step 3 until symptom free
YES
Move to step 5
Return to Step 4 until symptom free
YES
RETURN TO PLAY
Figure 3: Graduated “return to play” following concussion
Gender equality in martial arts
Traditional attitudes towards gender permeate some martial arts. For example, professional sumo is notable for its exclusion of women from competition and ceremonies. Women are not allowed to enter or touch the sumo wrestling ring as this is traditionally seen to be a violation of its purity. As recently as 2008, the female Governor of Osaka, Fusae Ohta, when called upon to present the Governor’s Prize to the champion of the annual Osaka sumo tournament, was required to do so on the walkway beside the ring or to send a male representative in her place. Despite repeatedly challenging the Japan Sumo Association’s policy by requesting to be allowed to fulfill her traditional role as Governor, her requests were denied.
Traditional Muaythai has similar barriers to female participation. The International Federation of Muaythai Amateur has been able to address these through establishing a Female Commission and establishing specific guidelines on female participation, including such elements as the requirement for all national teams to be comprised of both female and male athletes, and
23 IOC (2018)
24 Channon & Matthews (2016)
competition rules and dress codes that cater for different cultural and religious groups.
There is however no standard way of integrating gender equality in martial arts, and each recognized federation for combat sports and martial arts has developed its own standard (including those that do not allow female participation). The combat sports (martial arts) governed by International Federations that adhere to a strict Code of Ethics aligned to the International Olympic Committee, generally have policies to ensure the inclusion of women at all levels and areas of the sport and to advance gender equality in the broader community.23
The issue of gender in martial arts and combat sports has recently become an area of academic study, and in 2016 a symposium of the topic was held in Brighton, United Kingdom, which attracted approximately 30 academics and practitioners. Key issues identified during the symposium are access, work-life balance, lack of female role models, an unwelcoming social environment in gyms, and the differentiation of needs of different groups of women.24
9

However, since sport for development programmes are designed, developed and delivered in societies with vastly different cultures and embedded gender norms, it is not clear how applicable this Western-based information is to non-Western programmes. Further detailed information is needed to identify culturally- specific martial arts gender issues. The Brighton seminar recommended addressing three issues.
Suppor tive Training Environments – environments that are welcoming, safe and trusting social environments are important to overcome male-dominated spaces and the sexualizing of martial arts and combat sports in the mainstream media. This requires separate changing facilities and hygiene standards, as well as avoiding “male-dominated” decoration, signs, etc.
Instructors and Instruction – encouraging female instructors and managers across the gym or organisation (i.e., not only for children and women’s sessions) and ensuring adequate education to properly support female trainees. One way proposed to do this is to implement gender awareness training as part of instructor qualification programmes.
Segregation and Integration – whilst there are different opinions with respect to the merits of each, both segregation and integration may be used in different ways. Women-only sessions can create a higher level of comfort for some women who find training in front of men and boys intimidating. On the downside, women-only sessions may be considered condescending or of lower quality. Ideally both approaches should be considered in scheduling.
Interviews with female Muaythai athletes undertaken by UNESCO during the 2016 International Federation of Muaythai Amateur (IFMA) World Championships in Jönköping, Sweden, reveal that participation in Muaythai may be empowering for women in a range of different cultural and social contexts.25 This factor may be utilized in developing targeted programmes for female athletes.
What does this mean for youth development?
Given the significant risks youth all over the world are facing today, especially risks related to mental health and increasing occurrence of non-communicable diseases, participation in some form of physical activity is advised by the World Health Organization as critical for well-being. The positive effects have been well documented and are reflected in the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030.26
Due to the unique characteristics and the promotion of core values such as peace, respect, mindfulness and discipline, martial arts offer an important vehicle for achieving additional positive development outcomes for young people, including techniques for dealing with aggression, developing personal intercultural competencies, instilling positive values and developing soft-skills such as leadership, self- awareness, intercultural understanding and team-work abilities.
The positive psycho-social outcomes that have been observed in different types of martial arts-based programmes are an indication of the impact martial arts can have on youth development. To harness their full value, it is critical that these interventions are well designed, monitored and evaluated, and take into account appropriate safeguarding measures to prevent serious injury, abuse or other risks. Although there is currently no universal framework to compare data collected through martial arts-based youth development programmes, Action 2 of the Kazan Action Plan seeks to resolve this issue by developing a series of model indicators that could guide programmes in the future and contribute to a broadening evidence-base.27
Whether martial arts can contribute to broader structural changes, such as contributing to gender equality, is difficult to determine, although there is significant anecdotal evidence to suggest that female participation in martial arts is both empowering for the individuals, and challenges traditional gender roles.
Part one: Martial arts for youth development
25 Teams surveyed include Australia, Canada, Germany, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Thailand, Russian Federation, Sweden, Turkey, United States of America, United Kingdom
26 WHO (2018)
27 UNESCO (2016)
10
Youth development

PART TWO
DESIGNING FOR GOOD PRACTICE
© ICM
11

2 .1 How martial arts can be used in positive youth development
Martial arts can impact youth development in three separate and distinct ways:
Martial arts can attract youth (particularly those searching for strong role models and street credibility) to attend programmes. The convening power of sport is widely recognized, and martial arts can expand upon that recognition by reaching some of the most vulnerable, “at-risk” individuals through their unique characteristics, such as a controlled used of force, meditative elements and an association with rich cultural histories. Once integrated into a well-designed programme, youth have the opportunity to bond with other youth and concerned adults, be exposed to positive role models and improve their lives through education and community-building activities.
Martial arts can build youth resilience. Youth are more likely to achieve healthy, favourable outcomes and to thrive if they are resilient. Resilience is defined as the process of managing stress and functioning well even when faced with adversity or trauma. Resilience
has several components, and since it is central to how youth-focused sport programmes function, it is examined at length in a separate section of this report (see page 18 for details). For such change to occur, participants will need to believe and know how to apply their new skills to daily problems.
Martial arts can be used as a medium through which to teach youth. Conditioning-based games, drills and physical activities can be set up to achieve specific desired outcomes. Although for this to happen consistently, appropriate teaching and learning strategies are required. Appropriate design is critical to the success of sport- based youth development programmes and is examined separately (see page 25). In general, martial arts can be an effective means of teaching or changing:
a . Knowledge
b . Attitudes/Values c . Behaviours or d . Skills
2 .2 Using developmentally appropriate activities in youth-focused martial arts programmes
For many years, school-based physical education has focused on training teachers to deliver developmentally appropriate learning activities to children and youth. Grass-roots sport, however, has been slow to follow.
Since the early 2000s a number of long-term “athlete development” frameworks have been developed, and while they differ from each other, they all, without fail, recognize that children grow and mature as they pass from infancy through childhood, puberty and adolescence, and emerge as functioning adults. As children grow and mature their capabilities change, and this maturation drives changes in:
● Physical capacities such as strength, endurance, speed and flexibility;
● Ability to learn and perform complex skills; 12
● Cognitive capacity to understand cause and effect relationships, abstract thinking and the ability to think strategically;
● Executive function, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition control;
● Psychological capacity related to attention, focus, anxiety control, and visualization;
● Emotional capacity; and,
● Moral capacity and the ability to act with integrity.
There is a fairly well-defined sequence to human maturation, but the timing of maturation differs between males and females while also having great individual variability within each sex. This is best observed in the onset of the adolescent growth spurt, which can start in 8 year old females and 9 year old
Part two: Designing for good practice
Youth development

Selected good practices
Middle childhood
6–8 years in boys 6–9 years in girls
Part two: Designing for good practice
males, and is often experienced later in some late developing 14 year old males.
It is therefore imperative that youth-development programme design considers and takes into account the maturity of participants, to ensure that activities are not just appropriate but are optimal for participants’ physical, cognitive, psychological, moral and emotional stage of development.
However, in a series of evaluations of sport for develop- ment programmes in Southern Africa undertaken by Thachuk and Higgs in 2008–2009, the authors showed that, in each programme evaluated, there was little to no adjustment in the activities undertaken with children of different ages and therefore at different stages of devel- opment. The activities undertaken with 19 year olds were frequently identical to activities undertaken with 9 to 10 year olds.
There is no universal agreement on the names and duration of different stages of human development, although the breakdown shown in Table 1 is considered standard.
With many national governments defining youth as someone from early adolescence (10–12 years of age) until 25, 29 or in some cases 30 years of age, it should be apparent that “one size of programming” will not fit the needs of all participants.
Table 1: Breakdown of the human lifespan into developmental stages Stage Defining characteristics
Approximate age
Onset of stage defined by birth, and upper end of stage approximately the age at which humans have their maximum number of brain cells.
By the end of this stage the majority of children exhibit adult-like patterns of common movements, such as walking, running, catching, kicking and throwing. They are developing some independence from parents/care givers, and engage with a wider group of peers.
This stage is marked by rapid improvement in physical skills, and in general and academic knowledge. By the end of this stage, most children can think in abstract terms. Moral values develop during this stage where most children develop a sense of self.
Rapid physical growth and increases in strength, speed, and endurance, often accompanied by a decrease in flexibility (especially in males).
Rapid sexual maturity and interest in developing sexual relations, emergence of sexual orientation.
Peers often more important socially than family.
First introduction to alcohol, drugs or sex for a significant number of individuals.
Establishment of romantic and sexual relationships, necessity of finding employment (or continuing education in expectation of later employment)
Starting a family.
Establishment of position in local community.
Heaviest exposure to alcohol, drugs, sexual activity and violence.
Building a job, career or profession. Building a family.
Often a period of stability.
In many communities, a period of family instability as children grow, leave home and enter own adult relationships.
Time of maximum standing in many communities.
Early childhood
Birth to 6 years
Late childhood
Adolescence
From 8 years in girls, 9 years in boys, until the onset of the adolescent growth spurt.
From onset to end of adolescent growth spurt. Usually 11-15 years in girls and 12-16 years in boys, but with significant individual variation
Early Adulthood
End of adolescent growth spurt to establishment of self in the adult community. Wide variation in age, but often in early to mid 20s
Middle adulthood
Mid 20s to middle age
Seniors
Middle age to death
Onset of deterioration of health with advancing age.
13

The consequence of this is that programmes must either:
● Restrict the age range of participants; or,
● Modify activities to best meet the developmental needs of children and youth as they pass through different developmental stages, including age- relevant outcome measures.
Where sport for development programmes use sport or physical activity to achieve social-objective goals, the activities must be developmentally-appropriate and the link to the social objective must be formulated to align with each participant’s cognitive, moral, psychological and emotional stage of development.
Individualizingprogrammestomeettheneedsofevery participant is exceptionally difficult, and for most sport for development programmes, the best that can be achieved is to ensure that the programme is designed around the average physical, cognitive, moral, psychological and emotional development of participants. Internationally, some sport-participation development frameworks have addressed this difficult problem, with the Athlete Development Matrix of Canadian Sport for Life: Long- Term Athlete Development containing the most detailed information.28
Figure 4 below shows, in simple form, the relationship between the stage of human development of a participant in a sport for development programme,
Part two: Designing for good practice
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Age i
n years (approximate guide only)
Range of adolescent growth
Males Early childhood
Stages of long-term
athlete
development
Middle childhood
Late childhood
Range
of adolescent growth
Adolescence
Early adulthood
Females Early childhood
Middle childhood
Late childhood
Adolescence
Focus during physical
Early adulthood
development
Basic human movements
Fundamental movement skills
Basic sport specific skills
Advanced sport specific skills
Lifelong recreational skills
Trust
Agility, balance, coordination
Can follow simple instructions
Development of autonomy
Obedience and punishment avoidance
Flexibility
Speed
Stages of inte
Endurance
Stages of emotional
llectual
Strength
development
Sensorimotor stage
Concrete thinking, no strategy
Able to deal with strategy
development
Start of autonomy
Competence: compare to others – withdraw if lacking
Individuals establish personal identity
Stages of moral
development
Self-interest – what’s in it for me?
Societal expectations
Maintaining social order: following the rules
Doing what is right even if against rules
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in years (approximate guide only)
Figure 4: Stages of human development across multiple domains
28 Sport for Life Society (2016) 14
Youth development
Physical capacities Skills

Selected good practices
Part two: Designing for good practice
and the key physical, cognitive, moral and emotional considerations. In addition, it shows in very simplified form the changes in focus required if the programmes are to best meet the developmental needs of participants.
To see how this focus on developmentally-appropriate programming is applied in practice, consider a martial arts based youth programme with two cohorts of participants–ayoungergroupof9–10yearoldsandan older group of 15–16 year olds (see Figure 5).
Younger group
Older group
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
11 12 13 14
17 18
Age i
n years (approximate guide only)
9 10
Range of adolescent growth
15 16
Males Early childhood
Stages of long-term
athlete
development
Middle childhood
Late childhood
Range
of adolescent growth
Adolescence
Early adulthood
Females Early childhood
Middle childhood
Late childhood
Adolescence
Focus duri
ng physical
Early adulthood
dev
elopment
Basic human movements
Fundamental movement skills
Basic sport specific skills
Advanced sport specific skills
Lifelong recreational skills
Agility, balance, coordination
Trust
Flexibility
Concrete thinking, no strategy
Speed
Stages of inte
Endurance
llectual
Strength
dev
elopment
Sensorimotor stage
Can follow simple instructions
Able to deal with strategy
Stages of emotional
dev
elopment
Start of autonomy
Development of autonomy
Competence: compare to others – withdraw if lacking
Individuals establish personal identity
Stages of moral
dev
elopment
Obedience and punishment avoidance
Self-interest – what’s in it for me?
Societal expectations
9 10
Maintaining social order: following the rules
Doing what is right even if against rules
15 16
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Age in years (approximate guide only)
11 12 13 14
17 18
Figure 5: Example of impact of stage of development on sport for development activities
15
Physical capacities Skills

Programmatic differences between martial arts based youth development activities for the two groups are shown in Table 2 below.
and economic needs and the opportunities that might be available. Programmes targeting the pyscho-social realm such as self-esteem require a knowledge of social
Table 2: Differences in programme focus based on two developmental ages across multiple domains
Part two: Designing for good practice
Stage
Defining characteristics
Approximate age
Targeted skills training and focused learning through skills- based games
Games and activities that maintain endurance and build strength
Games and activities in which participants have the opportunity to plan and discuss their strategy for success.
Since youth at this stage are formulating their identity, provide opportunities for self-selection of roles and responsibilities
Physical – skill
Games and activities to teach basic martial arts skills
Physical – capacities
Games and activities that develop speed of movement, and flexibility (particularly for boys)
Cognitive (intellectual)
Games and activities in which participants make specific decisions – for example, “when the opponent moves forward, take a step to the left”.
Emotional
Since children at this stage are comparing their competence to others, provide activities that have multiple solutions and to which many different people contribute.
Moral
Development objectives
For organizations to design a programme with clear development outcomes, there needs to be a clear articulation of the issues, objectives and pathways to achieving these. This is called intentional design. A key point raised by the Evaluation Framework, was that when programmes have not designed a pedagogy to achieve desired results, they will rarely produce an activity for youth which can claim to specifically address youth development.
Intentional design may be targeting personal issues for young women and men such as mental health, employment or education, or it may focus on community issues such as the local environment, affordable housing or community facilities. Just as understanding human development is necessary, local knowledge is critical in the design or adaptation of programmes to suit local circumstances and the needs of participants.
This means creating a logical pathway between the objectives and the activities. For example, a programme established to improve education needs to understand the current educational status of potential participants, the learning outcomes that would meet their social
29 UNESCO (2016) 16
Encourage debate about the reasons for rules, and whether there are situations in which the right thing to do is break the rules.
and mental health issues and how to work with young people to build self-esteem. Just as with the diversity in individual development of each young person, each community faces its own issues and possibilities.
Most sporting organizations do not automatically have the skills to develop such programmes, though their members might include teachers, doctors and other specialists who could play a part in such design.
The Kazan Action Plan29 and its corresponding MINEPS Follow-up Framework provides a structure for organizing good practice along 20 policy areas, across three themes: Inclusive access for all to sport; sport for sustainable development and sport integrity. As the follow-up framework becomes more comprehensive and the collection of information on good practices is expanded, it will be easier to identify sport-based programmes with specific development objectives. Contribution to the framework is voluntary and UNESCO urges all stakeholders to align relevant research, policy tools, programmes and other initiatives with these policy areas, and to share their work. The policy areas reflected in the Kazan Action Plan are in the text box.
Focus on rule-based games and activities and reinforce idea that by taking part in the game/activity, participants are agreeing to abide by the rules.
Youth development

Selected good practices
Part two: Designing for good practice
Kazan Action Plan key standards for achieving development through sport
I . Inclusive Access for All to Sport
I .1 Aligning with sustainable development
priorities
I .2 Partnerships
I .3 Quality physical education
I .4 Research-based evidence and
strengthened higher education
I .5 Gender equality & female empowerment
I .6 Youth in decision-making processes
I .7 Empowerment and inclusive participation for all
II . Maximizing the Contributions of Sport to Sustainable Development and Peace
II .1 Health and well-being of all
II .2 Resilient, safe and sustainable cities
II .3 Quality education and skills development through sport
II .4 Peaceful, inclusive and equitable societies
II .5 Economic growth and full and
productive employment for all
II .6 Gender equality and female empowerment
II .7 Sustainable consumption and production patterns & combatting climate change
II .8 Effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
III . Protecting the Integrity of Sport
III .1 Safeguarding athletes, spectators,
workers and other groups involved
III .2 Protection of children, youth and other vulnerable groups
III .3 Good governance of sports organizations
III .4 Anti-competition manipulation
III .5 Anti-doping and effective compliance measures
30 Centre for the Study of Social Policy (n.d.)
31 Tak Yan Lee, Chau Kiu Cheung, and Wai Man Kwon (2011)
Building youth resilience
The idea of resilience is built on the observation that some youth exposed to serious disadvantage or trauma – often called at-risk youth – do well, while others under similar circumstances turn to drugs, alcohol, anti-social behaviour or crime. What protects those who do well in life is labelled “resilience”. In academic circles, the idea of resilience is problematic due to a lack of consensus on an operational definition, and multiple overlapping but different understandings of the components that make up resilience.
What is resilience?
Resilience is the process of managing life, including both positive and negative experiences, and functioning well even when faced with adversity and trauma.30 Tak Yan Lee, Chau Kiu Cheung, and Wai Man Kwong report that there are three critical conditions for resilience to occur in youth:31
i Growing up in distressing life conditions or demanding societal conditions that are considered significant threats or severe adversities;
ii The availability of protective factors, including internal assets and external resources that may be associated with counteracting the effects of risk factors; and,
iii The achievement of positive adaptation despite experiences of significant adversity.
Though resilience may also develop without meeting all three of these criteria, extracting from their definition, the component of resilience that is accessible to direct change through martial arts based interventions suggests that the role of martial arts in building resilience is to enhance, “protective factors”, which include “both internal assets and external resources” to offset the effects of risk factors.
Factors promoting resilience have been identified at the level of:
● The individual
● The family ● Society
17

A very detailed list of protective factors has been developed by Fleming and Ledogar (2008).32 While the list was developed to be applicable to building resilience in Indigenous populations, it appears to be applicable more widely – particularly with respect to many aspects that are inherent to martial arts, including the inclusion of traditional activities, spirituality, language and healing. (see Table 3)
In addition, Michael Ungar has developed a range of age-specific questionnaires relating to resilience that are useful for practitioners wanting to consider monitoring and evaluation.34
A simplified set of resilience components are used in this document:
Mechanisms and processes:
Connection: Having a good connection with other people at home, in school and in the community. For youth, a strong connection to a good adult role model is one of the most important contributions to resilience.
Coping: Developing effective coping strategies can reduce self-destructive behaviour.
Table 3: Resilience resources at individual, family, and social/environment levels33 Personal attributes Family and community attributes
Part two: Designing for good practice
Constitutional resilience
Sociability
Positive temperament
Robust neurobiology
Responsiveness to others
Pro-social attitudes
Attachment to others
Academic achievement
Planning and decision making
Supportive families
Parental warmth, encouragement, assistance
Cohesion and care within the family
Close relationship with a caring adult
Belief in the child
Non-blaming
Intelligence
Marital support
Talent or hobby valued by others
Communication skills
Attitudes and Values
Developed language
Advanced reading
Tolerance for negative affect Self-efficacy
Self-esteem
Foundational sense of self Internal locus of control Sense of humour Hopefulness
Strategies to deal with stress Enduring set of values
Balanced perspective on experience Malleability and flexibility
Socioeconomic status
School experiences
Material resources
Supportive peers
Positive teacher influences
Supportive communities
Success (academic or other)
Belief in the individual
Non-punitive
Provisions and resources to assist belief in the values of society
Cultural resources
Traditional activities
Traditional spirituality
Traditional languages
Traditional healing
Fortitude, conviction, tenacity, and resolve
32 Fleming & Ledogar (2008) 33 ibid.
34 Resilience Research Center
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Contribution: Contributing to the well-being of others in the family, at school or in the community, makes youth feel good about themselves and can support the development of positive relationships. In addition, youth civic participation can have a positive effect on the entire community.
Outcomes:
Competence: The feeling of ability to successfully perform a task both in a sport-setting or in everyday life, based on having learned and had earlier success with the task.
Confidence: Having a belief in one’s own ability. Character: A clear sense and understanding of right
and wrong and a commitment to act with integrity.
Control: Feeling in control of your body and emotions in stressful situations reduces the tendency to over-react or make unwise decisions.
The American Psychological Association has suggested ten ways to build resilience, and these can be adapted for use in youth-oriented martial arts programmes.35 (see Table 4)
Given the expertise of the American Psychological Association, it is worth noting that for almost every one of their suggested actions to enhance resilience, martial arts provide an immediate and concrete setting in which to:
● Experience set-backs through being cut from a team, competitive loss, or injury,
● Apply well-established training techniques to address the setback,
● Discuss ways in which the skills and lessons learned in the gym environment can be applied to daily living settings.
Table 4: Ways to build resilience in youth-oriented martial arts programmes
American Psychological Association recommendation
Adaptation to martial arts programmes
Maintain good relationships with close family members, friends and others
Build good relations with teammates and programme leaders
Avoid seeing crises or stressful events as unbearable problems
Develop anxiety reduction techniques and strategies for facing stressful martial arts situations
Accept circumstances that cannot be changed
Accept martial arts circumstances that cannot be changed
Develop realistic goals and move towards them
Develop realistic martial arts goals and work towards them
Take decisive actions in adverse situations
Take decisive action when things go wrong in martial arts
Look for opportunities of self-discovery after a struggle with loss
Use martial arts losses as opportunity to explore what went wrong and find ways to overcome the problem
Develop self-confidence
Develop self-confidence through the mastery of martial arts skills
Keep a long-term perspective and consider the stressful event in a broader context
Consider individual competition losses in the broader context
Maintain a hopeful outlook, expecting good things and visualizing what is wished
Use positive visualization developed in martial art psychology in day-to- day activities
Take care of one’s mind and body, exercising regularly, paying attention to one’s own needs and feelings
In some ways, this is the essence of martial arts participation for health and well-being
35 American Psychological Assocation (n.d.)
19

It is interesting to consider the degree to which building resilience through involvement in martial arts is an inherent function of the nature of the sport, or something that can only be built through specific actions, in the right way at specific times during a participant’s involvement (see Figure 6).
The simplified model below shows the relationship between the seven components of resilience, the development of participant resilience and the desired outcome of the martial arts programme for social, health and education improvements.
Key areas of development supported through martial arts programmes
There is ample evidence in the human capital model to conclude that improved fitness, and the learning and successful execution of fundamental and basic sport skills, increases participants’ competence and, consequently, their confidence.36
Effective mental training in martial arts encompasses important skills, such as anxiety reduction, emotional control, concentration, discipline, re-focusing, and multi-sensory visualization of desired future actions. It also contributes to an individual’s feelings of confidence. All of these skills lead directly to greater emotional control and can be important in helping
youth plan and practice a course of action when faced with a future stressful situation.
Good nutrition, along with adequate physical and mental rest and regeneration (recovery) are important for coping with the demands of participation in martial arts, and may carry over into daily living. Therefore, to a certain degree, competence, confidence, control and coping are possible outcomes of participation in martial arts in the absence of structured pedagogy. Simply practising a martial art can be valuable in its own right, as it develops fitness, skills and potential social connections with other practitioners, the gym, teammates and the wider community. Fitness, physical aptitude and skills, mental focus and having adequate nutrition contribute greatly to youth resilience. These benefits can be significantly increased with appropriate pedagogy.
The remaining components of resilience; feeling connected, making a contribution to the team or gym (as well as the wider community) and developing character, require greater consideration for effective pedagogy and programme design.
The elements around pedagogy and design are critically important to effective outcomes.
Part two: Designing for good practice
Inherent in sport participation
Dependent on appropriate pedagogy
Programmes use
Fitness Psycho-motor skills Mental training
to develop
Competence Confidence Control
which creates
Enhanced participant resilience
that leads to
Improved general social, health and educational outcomes from
S4D programmes
Nutrition/recovery Coping
Rule-based games Teamwork Coaching
Contribution Character Connection
Figure 6: The simplified relationship between seven components of resilience, enhanced participant resilience and desired social, health and educational outcomes.
36 For example see Bailey et al. (2013) 20
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Part two: Designing for good practice
2 .3 The different types of organizations delivering martial arts youth programmes
Despite the variety of approaches and the diversity between the different types of organizations delivering youth-focused martial arts programmes, they can generally be divided into three groups:
Martial arts specific organizations
These are typically international, national or local martial arts organizations (gyms, national federations etc.) that have taken steps to undertake youth development initiatives. For these, the primary organizational objective is the advancement of the martial art, although advancing the sport and the performance of athletes is undertaken with a clear understanding that, delivered well, their martial art can also make a contribution to the positive development of youth.
These organizations are often well established in local communities, and are frequently well supported by those communities. While they may struggle with finances, they have good prospects for long- term viability. They are likely to be around for many years, and have the potential to positively influence generations of youth.
It is likely that however well-meaning and however well-intentioned a martial art specific organization is in the delivery of youth programming, it is almost certainly going to be delivered at a lower priority than sport specific training, or competition preparation.
In addition, martial arts leaders (masters, coaches and instructors) are likely engaged with the organization because of their love, and knowledge, of the sport. They may have little or no training in effective youth development pedagogy, and may not be prepared to give up their time to become trained in effective programme delivery.
Lastly, the culture of martial arts places the instructor/ master in a position of power over those practising. This power imbalance can be a barrier to open, non-judgmental discussions of the sensitive topics that come up in youth development programming. It could also lead to abuses of power in various forms.
In the instances where youth development objectives align with sport performance objectives, such as physical and mental health, targeted education to enhance youth development pedagogy should be incorporated into the approach. However, in general, martial arts specific coaches are poorly trained to deliver youth development activities and messages. With younger athletes generally coached by the least qualified coaches, the younger the athlete, the less likely he or she will receive effective instruction from a youth development perspective.
Issue specific organizations
These organizations are most frequently set up to combat major social issues and see martial arts as an effective complement to their objectives. Prime examples are Fight for Peace in Brazil, which targets peace-building in disadvantaged communities, or Teen Moms, led by the Peruvian Muaythai Federation in Lima, which provides psycho-social support to female victims of sexual assault resulting in teenage pregnancy. Sport is typically used to complement other non-sport activities.
These organizations are set up to address an existing issue or social problem and are therefore focused on using martial arts as a tool to address the root cause of the issue. Leaders of these programmes are often well trained in positive youth development pedagogy and are well placed to help participants link the lessons learned through martial arts to the issues they face in their daily lives.
Issue specific programmes are almost always delivered by organizations specifically established to address an issue of importance to national or local governments, or to international agencies and donors. Funding for such programmes is usually external and there is a very great risk that externally funded programmes will cease to exist when governments or international donors turn their attention to other, sometimes new and emerging, social issues.
21

Leaders in issue specific organizations are usually not well equipped or trained to develop sporting talent through effective sport coaching. While they have effective pedagogy and usually a high level of understanding of the issue with which they are dealing, they frequently do not develop martial art specific skills, which can lead to athletes stagnating and getting bored. This in turn can lead to programme drop-out. Helping leaders incorporate martial art specific skill development activities in their youth and sport programming could significantly increase programme quality.
Location specific organizations
These organizations most frequently emerge from local youth groups, youth organizations, church groups or municipal governments that see martial arts as an effective tool to engage their youth community. They are usually located in low-income, high-risk neighbourhoods as a grass-roots attempt to solve major local social problems including, but not limited to, drug and alcohol abuse, violence against girls and women, specific disease threats (such as HIV/ AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis), chronic unemployment, crime, unsanitary living conditions, or environmental pollution. Sport is typically used to complement other non-sport activities.
These organizations are established within a community, are usually well linked to both formal and informal local institutions and have a deep understanding of the cultural dynamics that drive local social issues. Although generally poorly funded, such organizations have a good probability of self-sustaining since they rarely rely on external funding to be established. Local leaders who organize and run location specific organizations are usually well respected within and often outside of the immediate community and have good credibility with local youth.
Often poorly funded, leaders of these organizations frequently have little or no opportunity to receive training in youth programming and pedagogy, and frequently have no one to turn to when they need assistance or information. Programmes often grow up around a key leader, and following the departure of such a leader, the programmes may collapse. The expertise
37 IOC (2017) 22
of the leader may also vary greatly with impacts on the quality and professionalism of the programme.
Some of the best-known sport for development programmes have been built around direct sport participation – in which engagement in community building activities and education is a prerequisite to participation in sport. Sport in these types of programmes is frequently used as an attraction and an incentive. In addition, the organization of sport training and competition by youth for youth provides an exceptional foundation for the development of life-skills – specifically organization and leadership skills.
While the intended outcomes of youth development through martial arts programmes may be similar regardless of the type of organization responsible for the initiative, those that are conducted by Sports Federations recognized by the Global Association of International Sports Federations (GASIF) should align to the core values of the International Olympic Committee, as reflected in the Olympic Charter 37. Athlete protection, gender equality and the harmonious development of humankind are embedded into the Charter, to which all GAISF Members are signatories.
Part two: Designing for good practice
Youth development

Selected good practices
Part two: Designing for good practice
2 .4 Appropriate design for youth-oriented martial arts programmes
There is no single best pedagogy for youth-oriented martial arts programmes. Different practitioners and organizations have developed their own approaches and two widely accepted and respected versions are offered in this report.
Experiential learning model
While experiential learning is often described as the process of learning through experience, it should more accurately be described as “learning through reflection on doing”. Experiential learning emerged in the early 1970s. David A. Kolb was an early promoter and developer of the modern theory of experiential learning, building on the earlier work of John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Jean Piaget.
Applied to martial arts-based youth development programmes, the experiential learning model focuses largely on the learning experience of the individual, where the participant is asked to share his/her experience practicing the sport, reflect and then recommence the activity. The participant is expected to link his/her observations with self-identified themes, problems and opportunities. All important learnings during the activity, such as “I felt stronger and more
confident” should be connected to future real-life experiences where the lesson could then be applied to a non-sport related activity.
The key elements of experiential learning are shown in Figure 7 below.
Right to Play model
The international play-based NGO dedicated to helping improve the lives of children through sport, Right to Play (RTP)38, uses a simplified version of experiential education called Reflect-Connect-Apply. RTP have determined that for play to be an effective teaching tool, children must understand the activity being delivered along with the associated life-lesson, and be able to relate it to their own life experiences. At the end of games, mentors lead children through a three-step discussion.
TheReflect-Connect-Applymodelencourageschildren to connect the sport-based activity to a similar experience in their own lives and it asks them to contemplate how they will apply what they have learnt from participating in the sport to their daily lives. The benefit of this model is that it is simple enough for
Apply
Share
Experience
Participants engage in S4D experience
Participants asked to describe their experience and their observations of what happened
Participants asked to identify themes, problems and opportunities Participants asked to connect important learnings to real-life experiences
Participants asked how and when they will use what they learned to respond in similar situations
Figure 7: The experiential learning model 38 Right to Play International (n.d.)
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children at any age to grasp and it encourages healthy conversation among peers and with supervisors. (see Figure 8)
Right to PlayTM Three phase “Reflect-Connect-Apply” pedagogy
Participants engage in S4D game, activity or sport
1 Reflect
Participants engage in a S4D experience and think about the game
Participants compare and connect what they experienced during the game to a similar experience from their own lives
Part two: Designing for good practice
Apply Connect Participants explore how they can apply what they’ve learned from the game to an area of their daily lives
Figure 8: The Right to Play model of pedagogy
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© ICM
Youth development
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PART THREE
EXAMPLES OF YOUTH DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MARTIAL ARTS
© ICM
25

3 .1 Examples of good practices
The programmes described in this section represent a curated selection of martial arts-based programmes that have been developed specifically to promote youth development and youth empowerment. Information on the programmes was collected through review of websites, contacting organizations and site visits where possible. The programmes were chosen based on the following criteria:
● There is a clear youth development and youth empowerment focus;
● The programme makes a clear contribution to the MINEPS Follow-up Framework;
● Core elements of the programme correspond to the Youth Development Evaluation Framework presented in this report;
● The programme must have an educational or support aspect in addition to the physical (martial arts) training.
Using the framework, a brief analysis of the approach and potential impact of the programme has been included. However, this analysis should be interpreted with great care for the following reasons:
● Analysis was based partly on self-reported information provided by the organization, and as there was no standard set of questions, critical information is frequently missing. Organizations may in fact have very useful, additional, information in their records, but elected not to make it available for public consumption.
● Different organizations provided different types and depth of information, reported over different time periods, making meaningful comparisons between organizations impossible.
● There is no well accepted, standard, language used by organizations to describe the intended outcomes of their programmes, and for many organizations English is not their first language leading to considerable room for errors of interpretation.
In assessing potential programme impact, reports were analysed with respect to the following:
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
a . Sport/martial arts organization
b . Social issue based organization using a martial art
2 .
3 .
4 .
c . Location/community based organization using a martial art.
Were programme participants clearly identified?
a . By sex?
b . By age/age group?
c . By status (at-risk, in trouble with the law, out of school, general population)
What was the scope of participation?
a . How long did participants spend in the programme (weeks, months)?
b . How often (times per week) and for how much time (hours) did participants attend the programme?
Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
a . Were there clear specific and measurable objectives related to youth development; for example, personal development, strengthening values, leadership or addressing mental health or behavioural problems
b . Were objectives general?
c . Were objectives broken down by age and/or
sex of participants
Which of the following components did the programme deliver?
a . Martial arts participation?
b . Formal or informal education
c . Personal development?
d . Community engagement/Improvement
e . Support for participants outside of the martial arts component (health, education, employment, counselling, etc.)
Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
Did the programme take into account gender differences?
Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
Did the programme train local youth leaders?
26
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
5 .
6 . 7 . 8 .
9 .
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
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Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
Absence of evidence that a specific programme component was in place maybe the result of:
● The component being in place but not reported in the limited information available to the independent external expert, or
● The component not being in place. Programme target group clearly identified
Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence!
To provide an overview or snapshot, the criteria have been summarized in the “score card” below and each profile has a quick guide to how well it does for each of the seven criteria. In many cases there is little evidence, or not enough evidence, to know how well the programme has performed.
Programme adapted to suit different ages
Attention given to involving marginalized and vulnerable groups
Clearly targets the participation of females at all ages
Inclusive of youth with different abilities
Mention of other gender groups
Frequency of participation
Activities Bi-Weekly or more (twice per week)
Weekly activities
Monthly activities
Less than monthly
Length of participation
Participants spent at least one year in the programme
Participants spent at least six months in the programme
Participants spent at least three months in the programme
Programme objectives clearly articulated
Objectives Identified with appropriate corresponding indicators for measurement
Objectives broken down by sex / age (bonus points)
Participant surveying (before/after);
Some indication of monitoring changes over time
No mention of monitoring & evaluation
Personal/community development delivered as part of the programme
Personal development
Support for participants outside of the martial arts component (health, education, employment, counselling, etc.)
Involvement of the broader community in the intervention / community improvement
Well-developed educational components taught by professionals / specialists in that area
Programme design
Identifies the pedagogy used
No mention of programme pedagogy
Sustainability
Youth leaders were trained to continue the programme
Growth and sustainability plan clearly identified
Not being achieved
Evidence of some achievement but either not consistent or difficult to measure success Clear evidence of achievement
Not enough evidence to rate
Again it is important to stress that the programmes in the orange and grey categories may be achieving more than can be evaluated from the information
available. Red is assigned only where it is clear that the programme has not addressed this criterion.
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Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Transforming cities through sport, Malabon City, Philippines
A partnership between UNESCO, the Muaythai Association of the Philippines and the Malabon City Council
Geographical scope: Malabon City, Philippines and global
Type of martial art: Muaythai
Type of project: Focusing on urban-renewal and empowering youth through Muaythai and other sports
Status: Active, launched 2017
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme snapshot
Structure:
Sustainability
of the youth living in the area is conducted (at least 100 potential participants) seeking to reveal trends and barriers to education (including comprehensive sexuality education), healthcare, employment, political inclusion and any human rights violations. Experts and other targeted interventions are then planned accordingly, depending on the survey results and the local context.
Stage two:
Bi-weekly sport sessions led by champion athletes from the National Federations for different sports and other interventions led by subject-matter experts, are conducted over a 3 to 12 month period (depending on the availability of funding).
Stage three:
Evaluation stage and preparation for continuation of the programme. New youth leaders should be sufficiently knowledgeable to continue the programme autonomously (with occasional expert interventions).
Over one year:
1 . 75% sustained participation of youth (at least 100 participants)
2 . Evidence to support the contribution of sport towards economic development and health (reduced NCDs) (measured by prevalence
of NCDs before and after, including signs of reduced obesity, awareness of sexual health & the benefits of PA etc.)
The global campaign, Transforming Cities through Sport was launched in December 2017 in Malabon City, Philippines, an area of metro Manila. Each iteration of the programme seeks to rejuvenate a public space within an urban informal settlement (“slum” area) and combines various sport-based activities to seek out disadvantaged youth. The project aims to create new safe spaces available for sport in poor urban areas, improve social cohesion, reduce violence by and against youth and promote greater gender equality by insisting on the participation of girls and vulnerable gender groups. It also aims to engage city-level authorities, advocate for the importance of safe spaces for sport and challenge the stigma associated with the urban poor and informal settlements.
Designed to run over an initial period of a year, the programme is divided into three stages.
Stage one:
Once an appropriate community space is identified and permission is granted from the local government, a safety inspection of the area is carried out, followed by a month-long “clean-up” and rehabilitation of the space involving the local community in the transformation. This includes replacing and repairing sports equipment (such as a basketball hoop or volleyball net) and painting the area, as well as planting trees and grass. A comprehensive survey based on the UN Youth-SWAP
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Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
3 . A greater understanding of the local demographics and some data revealing life in informal settlements (measured through surveying and local school enrolment data)
4 . An enhanced appreciation for the importance of safe, inclusive spaces for sport in urban areas for both the local council and the community (measured through before/after surveying)
5 . The development of young leaders to continue the project independently
Notes by an independent expert:
6 . Out-of-school youth involved in the programme transferring into the formal education system
7 . Reduced violence by and against youth (measured by surveying and neighbourhood crime rate data)
8 . An opportunity to design informed interventions and policies (health, educational, urban etc.) that meet the specific needs of out-of-school, disabled, marginalized and vulnerable groups
Overview:
This is a social development through sport programme with sub-programmes tied to specific locations. It uses a variety of sports including, but not limited to, martial arts, to empower youth from disadvantaged communities and for community development.
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
Location/community based organization using a martial art (Muaythai) in one or more locations.
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Participants not identified by sex or age, but identified as “youth”.
Participants identified as “disadvantaged” who were sought out. This is particularly positive since this is a demographic that generally does not volunteer for participation in community activities.
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
Programming is anticipated to last approximately 1 year, with bi-weekly spot activities. (2 x per week).
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
Some objectives were clearly identified, and measures for some were reported. Some of the reported measures, for example reduced crime measured by neighbourhood crime rates appear to be insufficiently sensitive, and subject to wide variations due to factors outside the control of the programme. This generally makes them poor measures. However others, such as participant surveys measuring perceptions of safety are likely to be sensitive enough to detect improvements.
Measures around the prevalence of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are unlikely to generate meaningful results given the time-span between poor life choices (around food intake and exercise) and the emergence of measurable NCDs. However, measures around awareness of sexual health and benefits of physical activity are appropriate and likely to generate meaningful data that can be attributed to programme interventions.
Some objectives were general – such as empowerment of youth, with no clear indication of how changes in empowerment would be measured.
Objectives were not broken down by age and/or sex of participants.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Martial arts participation (in some programme locations)
Educational opportunities, with potential transfer into the formal education system. Personal development, and improved health information.
Community engagement/Improvement is a high priority, especially around the provision of safe-spaces for sport.
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
No evidence of this.
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
No evidence of this.
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
No evidence of this.
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Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Yes, local youth leaders trained.
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
There is clear evidence of monitoring and evaluation, but insufficient detail provided to assess quality. Some measures seem inappropriate due to lack of sensitivity.
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
Yes, the engagement of local authorities and training local youth leaders bodes well for sustainability of the programme. Recruiting and engaging more senior local leaders to support the programme within the community should be considered if this is not already in place.
Conclusions:
This programme is based on solid programme design and delivery principles. Consideration should be given to more clearly articulating the
role of martial arts in the programme, to more clearly identifying the pedagogy used, and more clearly defining participants. The age and sex of participants should be included in future reporting, and based on the age and sex distribution of participants additional thought might be given to age-appropriate modifications of the programme, and taking into account well established principles related to the differences in working with males and females in the area of sport and physical activity.
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Youth development

Selected good practices
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Sport Is Your Gang
An International Federation of Muaythai Amateurs project, supported by UNESCO
Geographical scope: Global; currently operating in Dominican Republic, Germany, Madagascar, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Thailand
Type of martial art: Muaythai
Type of project: Focusing on vulnerable youth in disadvantage communities, particularly areas with high crime rates
Status: Active, launched 1991
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme snapshot
Structure:
Sport Is Your Gang (SIYG), is a global Muaythai campaign designed to empower at-risk youth in disadvantaged communities and deter them from associating with gangs and organized crime. It is currently active in seven countries (Dominican Republic, Germany, Madagascar, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Thailand), and is implemented by the National Federations of Muaythai Amateur, under the guidance of the International Federation of Muaythai Amateur (IFMA). In 2014, the programme won the SportAccord Spirit of Sport award for the best community-based sports project.
With a focus on youth susceptible to drugs, alcohol and different forms of violence, the project seeks to promote an alternative to everyday vices by providing quality Muaythai-based training and psychological support to youth living in impoverished urban areas. The main focus of the programme is advocacy for healthy lifestyles and alternate choices, such as civic engagement and careers in sport.
In Bangkok, Thailand, the project is supported by the local council and is carried out once a week in two locations. Over the last decade, the physical structures for sport in the two designated areas have been rejuvenated through donations. Once a year, IFMA, also based in Bangkok, hosts a fundraising event on-site where the youth demonstrate their skills and embassies are invited to donate to support the programme.
Sustainability
The trainers involved are all associated with the National Federations and are appropriately qualified to work with youth. On average, 60% of the participants are female and the total participant age-range is from 12 to 19 years old. The programme impacts are measured through monthly surveying of the participants to evaluate their psychological well-being and reveal any changes in their lifestyles (i.e. school drop- outs). The trainers monitor the youth and submit an evaluation of each individual monthly, which includes changes in morale, attendance patterns and any other signs of harm.
Links to relevant materials and websites:
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www.ifmamuaythai.org
©DragonImages/Getty Images

Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Notes by an independent expert:
Overview:
This is a personal/community development through sport programme operating in different countries. It uses Muaythai, to empower youth from disadvantaged communities with a focus on reducing gang affiliation and reducing violence.
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
A sport based organization using a martial art (Muaythai) in one or more locations.
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Age and sex of participants clearly identified
Participants identified as “at-risk” from engagement in gang-related activities. It is not clear whether participants are actively recruited or are attracted to the programme by local word of mouth.
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
Clear description of frequency and duration of participant engagement, with participation tracked as part of the monitoring and evaluation process
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
Very clear identification of programme objectives and of tracking of progress towards those objectives.
Empowerment of participants clearly identified as objective. However, there was no clear indication of how empowerment was measured.
Objectives were not broken down by age and/or sex of participants.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Muaythai participation a key component Psychological support and education
Community engagement/Improvement Opportunities for employment through a sport career
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
No evidence of this.
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
No clear evidence although 60% or more of participants are female. (5 points)
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
No evidence of this.
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Not clear, as the training of local youth leaders is not directly addressed.
However, there is reference to “careers in sport” but it is unclear if this is through professional competition/ performance or through training to become a paid instructor.
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
There is clear evidence of good monitoring and evaluation practices. For a more detailed analysis greater detail is required
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
Yes, although it appears as though the programme’s sustainability is predicated on external donations.
Conclusions:
This programme is based on solid programme design and delivery principles, and this has been previously recognized through its receipt of a major international award. Based on the limited information available the one clear weakness appears to be the continued reliance on donations for sustainability.
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Youth development

Selected good practices
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Fight for Peace/Luta Pela Paz
A partnership between Reebok, Ikea Foundation, Laureus Sport for Good Foundation, Credit Suisse, the Embassy of Brazil in England
Geographical scope: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and London, England
Type of martial art: Boxing, Jiu-Jitsu, Muaythai
Type of project: The organization provides mentoring, competition and fitness training, education, social Interaction and role-modelling. It also provides pathways to employment and careers as athletes.
Status: Active, since 2000
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme snapshot
Structure:
Fight for Peace receives funding from donations, corporate partnerships and fundraising initiatives. Local Government Units in Brazil support specific projects through in-kind contributions, such as access to public spaces. The main donors for projects run in Rio de Janeiro are NGOs and private donors, with the IKEA foundation being their biggest private funder. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) funds some programmes.
Fight for Peace was founded in Rio de Janeiro in 2000 and launched in London in 2007. The programme’s key focus is youth empowerment through education and employment opportunities, violence prevention and addressing the physical, emotional and mental well-being of youth. Fight for Peace uses a five-pillar “public health methodology”to empower participants, using martial arts to attract participants to participate in targeted education programmes. The five pillars are integrated throughout each Fight for Peace activity. These five pillars are:
I . Enhancing the cultural and traditional aspects of boxing and martial arts to promote respect, discipline, self-control, feelings of belonging and self-esteem, and the high-energy, “fun” aspects to attract youth to join the programme;
II . Education. Fight for Peace offer support and educational opportunities for students who are
Sustainability
outside the formal education system or who have learning difficulties;
III . Improving youth individual employability through targeted training programmes, vocational courses, and referrals to job opportunities;
IV . Additional support services offered by a multidisciplinary social-support team. The services include individual mentoring, social, medical and legal referrals, home visits and community interventions and outreach;
V . Youth leadership. Youth leaders form special youth councils to represent the Organization externally and liaise with staff on strategy and programme development.
Both the Rio de Janeiro and London sites are direct service providers offering martial arts instruction, education and other support services to those who attend. In the interest of strengthening the Organizational pedagogy, Fight for Peace partners with other organizations across the globe to share their framework, learn from other programmes and help develop local projects.
Fight for Peace regularly submit their programmes for external evaluation and release annual reports documenting their impact. Their research and independent assessments are freely available on their website: http://fightforpeace.net/research
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Youth development
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
A sport-based organization using a variety of culturally appropriate martial arts in different locations (for example Boxing in London and Jiu-Jitsu in Brazil).
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Age and sex of participants not clearly identified in available documentation.
Participants identified as “at-risk” from engagement in gang-related activities. It is not clear how participants are recruited.
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
Not clearly identified in available documentation.
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
Very clear identification of programme objectives: education and employment opportunities, violence prevention physical, emotional and mental well-being.
Objectives were not differentiated by age and/or sex of participants.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Martial arts participation a key component Education, legal health and psychological support Links to employment opportunities
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
No evidence of this.
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
No gender differences in programming described.
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
Very clear articulation of the processes used in the programme, but not of the martial arts pedagogy used.
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Yes, clearly an important component of the programme, and the youth councils additionally create stronger links to the community.
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
There is clear evidence of good monitoring and evaluation practices, with the use of external evaluators, and publication of research documents. In this regard the programme is an exemplar.
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
Difficult to access through available documentation.
© Vitalij Sova/Getty Images
Notes by an independent expert:
Overview:
Using the five-pillar methodology, Fight for Peace empowers participants with tools and support structures to build futures for themselves and thus break cycle of poverty and violence.
Links to relevant materials and websites:
http://fightforpeace.net
http://fightforpeace.net/xxaltxx/wp-content/ uploads/2015/06/Fight-for-Peace-2016-Annual- Report.pdf
https://www.youtube.com/user/fightforpeacegroup
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
This is a personal/community development through sport programme operating in at least two countries. It uses a number of different martial arts, to empower youth from disadvantaged communities and additionally provides education, health and employment support using a public health approach
Conclusions:
Overall, an excellent programme. The use of a public health intervention framework, and transparent monitoring and evaluation documentation are to be applauded. Areas that (based on documentation available to me) may require attention (a) are fine-tuning the programme to better meet the needs of participants at different stages of the growth and development, (b) the specific role of martial arts in meeting programme objectives, and (c) the way in which an experiential education pedagogy might help reach programme objectives.
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Selected good practices
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
World Taekwondo Peace Corps
A partnership between National Governments and National Taekwondo Federations
Geographical scope: Operates from the Republic of Korea running programmes globally receiving countries depend on interest. Usually low to middle income countries
Type of martial art: Taekwondo
Type of project: A “peace corps” style programme for Korean youth exporting Taekwondo and Korean culture internationally
Status: Active since 2009
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme Snapshot
Structure:
The World Taekwondo Peace Corps is a youth development programme for Korean youth created by the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF). Designed to instil values of peace and mutual respect, facilitate intercultural dialogue and promote Korean culture internationally, the programme is run intermittently throughout the year depending on available funding and normally operates in conjunction with major sports events over several weeks. The first Peace Corps programme launched in 2009 consisted of 59 participants (volunteers) of South Korean nationality dispatched internationally to 13 different host countries. By the end of 2014, the Peace Corps had 1500 volunteers and the programme had gained the support of the former United Nations Office on Sport for Development and Peace (UNOSDP).
Each Peace Corps team consists of 4 volunteers, 3 Taekwondo masters, one language student. Depending on the specific needs of the host country, the programmes last between 2 – 6 months. The activities include Taekwondo instruction in the host country, cultural exchange (sharing traditional Korean food, dance and music with the host culture) and dispatching provisions and donations (sports equipment, uniforms and toys) from the Republic of Korea.
The participants are chosen based on applications and interviews. All Peace Corps volunteers are over 18 years of age, hold at least a 3rd black belt in Taekwondo and are normally enrolled in university.
Sustainability
Before their dispatch, the volunteers participate in a one-week training course to prepare them. The World Taekwondo Peace Corps cover the airfare expenses, whereas the host countries cover local costs, such as accommodation, local transportation and meals.
Focusing on capacity-building of youth, the specific goals of the six month programme are to:
● Provide youth, including college students, an opportunity to broaden their experience and enhance their intercultural competencies by dispatching them to countries around the world to engage in public service activities
● Foster youth civic participation through the development of soft skills and capacity-building
● Promote Korean values internationally and instil a sense of national pride in Korean youth
● Enhance national and corporate competitiveness (including through soft skills gained during the volunteer experience)
● Create leaders and change-makers
The specific outcomes of the programme are:
● A ‘support network’ for young people: a mentoring system based on respect and inclusion
● Positive international attitudes towards Korea: alignment with national development goals and international development agendas (ie. UN Agenda 2030)
● Enhanced youth employability through soft skills such as leadership and team-work / language skills leading to long-term contribution to economic development
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● Peace/development campaign through sports through donation of sports equipment, community involvement
● Advancing the sport leading to discovering new talent and encouraging participation in the sport
● The World Taekwondo Federation was nominated for the Peace and Sport Award at the 2012 Peace and Sport International Forum held in Sochi, Russian Federation. The nomination was for
the remarkable contribution to communities in developing countries by Peace Corps volunteers.
Notes by an independent expert:
Overview:
Links to relevant materials and websites
http://www.worldtaekwondo.org/development/tpc
© Gerville/Getty Images
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
This is a programme of significant magnitude, operating in multiple countries. While it is a sport-organization based programme, in addition to promoting the sport it undertakes well-planned youth development interventions. The use of 4-person teams (three with sport and one with language competencies) appears to be a critical success factor.
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
A sport based organization, using Taekwondo to attract youth participants.
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Age and sex of participants not clearly identified in available documentation, but described as youth.
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
Korean leadership team placed in host country for 6-months. Unclear if departing leaders are replaced by new Korean leadership team, and the programme continues in the same location, or if a new location is selected.
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
Clear identification of programme objectives for the Korean leaders who are placed overseas, but participant objectives – other than advancing Taekwondo, and fostering positive attitudes towards Korea are not clear.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Martial arts participation a key component
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
No evidence of programme differentiation based on age of participants.
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
No indication of accommodating gender differences.
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
No evidence of a specific pedagogy.
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Not mentioned.
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
Monitoring and evaluation not mentioned.
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
While the programme is clearly sustainable at a National level for the leaders placed overseas, there is no indication of systematic planning for sustainability within the countries to which Korean sport leaders are sent. It appears that the assumption is that programmes will continue under the auspices of individual National Taekwondo Federations.
Conclusions:
A large, well organized programme. It appears that the Korean sport and language leaders who serve 6-months overseas may be the biggest beneficiaries, and the programme is clearly designed to raise the profile of Korea within developing countries, and benefit Korea on the leaders’ return. This is not necessarily a bad thing, and it is almost certain that youth in developing countries benefit from this programme.
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Youth development

Selected good practices
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Nari Uddug Kendra
A partnership between national governments and national martial arts federations
Geographical scope: Bangladesh
Type of martial art: Karate
Type of project: A female-focused youth development programme using martial arts to empower women and girls
Status: Active since 1991
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme snapshot
Structure:
The Non-Governmental Organization, Nari Udduf Kendra (NUK) was found in 1991 and is led by human rights and gender expert, Mashuda Khatun Shefali. The NUK team is comprised of approximately 300 staff, and delivers a wide range of programmes, including specialized gender and human rights training for Physical Education teachers, grants for young females interested in becoming physical education teachers, youth physical literacy programmes, as well as numeracy courses and financial assistance through small micro-loans to support female mobility and entrepreneurship. In addition, NUK commissions research into the experience of women in sport, as well as advocacy materials to promote the participation of women in sport in Bangladesh, a country which has historically excluded them.
NUK use a range of techniques to achieve their goals, one of them being through the use of Karate. Adapting the Fight for Peace framework and modifying it to include gender-specific elements from their own programme, NUK focus equally on education and physical training. The ultimate goal of the organization is to develop and deliver a ‘Fight for Your Rights’ programme in every school in Bangladesh in partnership with NGOs, CSOs and sports federations.
Another NUK project, Sports and Physical Activities for Women’s Empowerment (SPAWE), which uses a variety of sports including Karate, is funded by Women Win,
Sustainability
a reputable organization recognized by the International Working Group on Women in Sport (IWG). SPAWE is supported by the Ministry of Youth and Sports, Bangladesh.
The programme runs for three months at a time (weekly) and has engaged approximately 1800 girls, with 30 girls participating each time. The instructor is a black-belt in Karate and the activities include physical training and ‘reflection’ including discussion of gender-related issues. Surveying before and after the programme has revealed that the majority of participants feel “safer in public” and consider themselves to be more confident. Many said they would continue to practice physical activity and Karate even after the programme has finished.
The programme has developed its own qualitative guidelines:
● FGD (Focus Group Discussion) and in-depth interview guidelines
● A case study checklist
Links to relevant materials and websites:
Website: http://nuk-bd.org/women_sports.php Video: https://youtu.be/mHek8QXrDyU
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Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Notes by an independent expert:
Overview:
This national-level programme specifically focuses on gender issues, and on the empowerment of girls through involvement in Karate and reflection activities. Empowerment is supported through ancillary activities related to career planning and advancement and economic empowerment.
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
An issue based organization (advancement of women and girls in sport/female empowerment).
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Programme focuses on females. No age range provided (5 points)
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
Programme runs weekly for 3-months at a time. Duration of weekly sessions not reported
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
Very clear programme objectives around empowerment of females and safety of females.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Karate participation a key component.
Reflection, Human Rights training, and economic empowerment. Strengthening physical education in schools for females
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
No evidence of programme differentiation based on age of participants.
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
Programme is focused on female participation.
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
While a specific pedagogy is not mentioned, the focus on reflection suggests that the organization is aware of and uses a well-founded experiential education approach. No indication of change in pedagogy with age.
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Focus on assisting young women become female physical education teachers
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
Yes, a robust monitoring and evaluation culture is in place and the organization has created its own evaluation tools
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
Involvement of international organizations and the National Government increases the likelihood of programme being sustained.
Conclusions:
A large national programme with a clear focus on female empowerment. Objectives are clear, and a wide range of activities help in attaining those objectives. Clear use of effective pedagogy.
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© Poco_bw/Getty Images
Youth development

Selected good practices
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Empire Fighting Chance
A partnership between Amateur Boxing Association of England, Esmee Fairbairn Foundation, Sport England Lottery, Bristol Council, Avon and Somerset Police, Bristol National Health Service
Geographical scope: Bristol, England
Type of martial art: Boxing
Type of project: A female-focused youth development programme using martial arts to empower women and girls
Status: Active since 2006
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme snapshot
Structure:
The Empire Amateur Boxing Club has been active for over 40 years producing competitive boxing athletes. In 2006, the gym began a social outreach programme in the local community. The programme is supported by England’s National Health Service (NHS) and follows the Fight for Peace 5-pillar methodology, also offering supplementary courses in numeracy, financial literacy and life-based skills training. The gym has an established youth council which acts as a reporting mechanism and supports the involvement of youth in the gym’s decision-making process. A network of partners make up the support system (doctors, legal advisors etc.) and youth are referred on a case-by-case basis.
Empire Fighting Chance follows an adapted Fight for Peace methodology:
I . Boxing is used as a means to instil important values such as discipline, pride and self-control in club members;
II . Education is an important part of the programme. The gym offers classes in numeracy and literacy, as well as pathways to formal qualifications;
III . Employability. Members of the gym have access to specific training courses offered by the organization’s partners;
IV .
Sustainability
Youth support services offering home visits to youth in need, as well as street out-reach and case work for those in need of social and psychological support;
Youth leadership. A special Youth Leadership Programme comprised of elected youth members partake in the organization’s decision-making process.
In addition to the standard methodology, Empire Fighting Chance offers a special programme targeting obesity and physical inactivity. Nutritional advice is regularly shared with the participants and the wider community via social media.
The programme is held year-round in their own gym, as well as within selected schools as an alternative education programme.
According to their own figures, Empire Fighting Chance engage approximately 200 young people every week. The goals of the alternative education programme are:
● Heightened academic performance ● Improved school attendance
● Improved behavioural issues
● Reduced disruptive behaviour
● Increased confidence
● Increased self-esteem
● Increased aspiration
● Increased participation in school life
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Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Links to relevant materials and websites:
http://www.empirefightingchance.org http://www.empirefightingchance.org/programmes/schools
Notes by an independent expert:
Overview:
A boxing-based youth intervention programme with a long history. Organization was originally sport-only, but for more than a decade has had a youth development outreach programme.
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
A sport based organization (boxing).
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Programme focuses on youth, with no focus on specific participant targets (age or sex), though mentions in the overview it is female focused, this is not described further
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
Programme runs continuously within the sport club, with shorter duration school-based satellite programmes
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
Very clear programme objectives around raising aspirations, increasing academic performance, and building empowerment through increased self-confidence and self-esteem. Reduction in disruptive and anti-social behaviour.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Boxing participation, education, employability, support services and building leadership skills and opportunities. Special anti-obesity and nutrition programmes.
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
No clear evidence of programme differentiation based on age of participants.
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
No clear evidence of programme differentiation based on gender
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
Range of pedagogy used, with no indication of pedagogy variations with changing participant age.
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Leadership opportunities for peer-elected youth.
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
Insufficient evidence to evaluate
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
No evidence provided.
Conclusions:
A well-established programme with clear objectives and clear strategy to achieve those objectives. Boxing used as instructional tool, with the opportunity for those with the talent and determination to advance their competitive boxing.
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© Antonio_Diaz/Getty Images
Youth development

Selected good practices
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Okichitaw Martial Arts Programme
A partnership with Public Health Agency of Canada
Geographical scope: Toronto, Canada
Type of martial art: Indigenous Canadian Martial Art
Type of project: A special programme for urban Aboriginal youth over 18 years, designed to empower them through martial arts and constructive dialogue, as well as preserve Indigenous traditions and culture
Status: Active since 1994
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme snapshot
Structure:
The Okichitaw Martial Arts programme teaches an indigenous Canadian combat art to empower aboriginal youth and adults emotionally and physically, but also as a means of preserving Native culture and history. Developed and led by a Chief Instructor, George Lépine, the programme is based on the combat techniques of the Plains Cree First Nations people and is recognized by the Public Health Agency of Canada as a best practice public health intervention.
The martial arts programme is offered at the Native Canadian Centre of Toronto.
The outcomes at the individual level are:
I . Improved physical health including weight- loss and diabetes prevention, as well as self- defence skills
II . Spiritual growth and greater cultural sensibilities
III . Emotional well-being
IV . Social support through group therapy and team-building, as well as an association with the centre
V . Trauma relief through mediation and practice in martial arts
Sustainability
Links to relevant materials and websites:
http://ncct.on.ca http://www.okichitaw.com
http://cbpp-pcpe.phac-aspc.gc.ca/aboriginalwtt/ okichitaw-indigenous-martial-arts-program/
©www.okichitaw.com
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Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Notes by an independent expert:
Overview:
An intervention programme for both youth and adults designed to empower indigenous citizens, and preserve an important cultural heritage.
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
A sport and culture based organization (Okichitaw traditional martial art).
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Indigenous people; age and gender not referenced.
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
Frequency and duration of participation not described in documentation
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
High level objectives of emotional and physical empowerment, through the preservation of indigenous cultural heritage. Additionally, improved physical health including weight-loss and diabetes prevention, as well as self-defence skills; Spiritual growth and greater cultural sensibilities. Emotional well-being Social support through group therapy and team-building. Trauma relief through mediation and practice in martial arts.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Okichitaw participation
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
No clear evidence of programme differentiation based on age of participants.
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
No clear evidence of programme differentiation based on gender
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
No clear evidence of pedagogy used.
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Not known.
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
Monitoring and evaluation not referenced
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
No evidence provided.
Conclusions:
A niche programme based on its targeted participants (indigenous population) and a martial art that is essentially unknown outside of the target population. Given the difficulties faced by indigenous populations in many countries across the development spectrum, the unique characteristics of this programme should be noted, and replicated in other indigenous communities.
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Youth development

Selected good practices
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Skillshare International
A partnership of UNHCR with Fight for Peace, the Botswana Defence Force and the Government of Botswana
Geographical scope: Dukwi Refugee Camp. The camp is ‘home’ to approximately 3,500 refugees from across Africa
Type of martial art: Boxing and Karate
Type of project: A martial arts based youth programme within a refugee camp designed to facilitate dialogue and specialized, targeted psychological support
Status: ?
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme Snapshot
Structure:
Sustainability
UNHCR and the NGO, Skillshare International, launched a martial arts based programme to engage out-of-school youth within the Dukwi Refugee camp in Botswana. Using the Fight for Peace 5-pillar methodology, Boxing and Karate are used to attract youth to the programme and begin a relationship with them, and additional support is provided based on a needs assessment. The ultimate goal of the programme is that the youth transition into the formal education system and/or access skills-based employment preparation training. The programme was developed in conjunction with the London-based organization, Fight For Peace, The Government of Botswana and The Botswana Defence Force.
Links to relevant matrials and websites:
http://fightforpeace.net/skillshare- international-botswana
http://fightforpeace.net/global-alumni-partner- skillshare-international-train-in-refugee-camp
http://www.icpcn.org/members-directory/2329/ skillshare-international-botswana
https://www.onlinevolunteering.org/en/node/387125
© Wavebreakmedia/Gettu Images
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Notes by an independent expert:
Overview:
A highly targeted intervention programme within a refugee camp.
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
An issue based organization (refugees)
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Young people in a refugee camp who are not in formal education
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
Frequency and duration of participation not described in documentation
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
Clear objectives of transitioning out-of-school youth into formal education or employment skills training. Providing other support (psychological) as required.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Martial arts used as a way to attract and interact with youth
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
No clear evidence of programme differentiation based on age of participants.
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
No clear evidence of programme differentiation based on gender
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
No clear evidence of pedagogy used.
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Not known
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
Monitoring and evaluation not referenced
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
No evidence provided.
Conclusions:
No conclusions drawn based on lack of information.
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Youth development

Selected good practices
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Sharing Youth Centre
A partnership of Caring Youth Centre with Centenary Bank, the Luigi Guisani Institute of Higher Education and Missionaries of Africa
Geographical scope: Kampala, Republic of Uganda
Type of martial art: Taekwondo and Capoeira
Type of project: Holistic education for underprivileged youth through martial arts
Status: Active since 1977
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme snapshot
Structure:
Sharing Youth Centre is an NGO focusing on out-of- school youth (mainly early school leavers or “drop- outs”). Taekwondo and Capoeira are used to attract participants to the different courses, which range from technical and vocational skills, information and computer technology and other basic-life skills. The martial arts component focuses on physical and mental health and well-being. The Sharing Youth Centre also provides free access to a library and career advice.
The Caring Youth Centre partners with Centenary Bank, the Luigi Guisani Institute of Higher Education, and Missionaries of Africa to help fund and deliver their services.
Sustainability
The key goal of the organization is to empower disadvantaged youth through formal education and vocational training skills. These skills are relevant to finding employment.
As part of the holistic approach to development Taekwondo and Capoeira are offered at the Centre. Participation is aimed at:
● Encouraging youth to compete in competitions; ● Instilling the positive values associated with
martial arts;
● Building relationships between other sports clubs and fostering community engagement.
Initial training in martial arts is provided for free and then a monthly fee is charged.
Links to relevant materials and websites:
http://www.sharingyouthcentre.org/
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Notes by an independent expert:
Overview:
A highly targeted intervention programme within a refugee camp.
Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
An issue based organization (School dropouts).
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Young people who are not in formal education
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
Frequency and duration of participation not described in documentation
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
Clear objectives of transitioning out-of-school youth into formal education or employment skills training. Additional objectives around increased physical and mental health, and general well-being.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Martial arts used as a way to attract and interact with youth
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
No clear evidence of programme differentiation based on age of participants.
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
No clear evidence of programme differentiation based on gender
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
No clear evidence of pedagogy used.
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Not known.
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
Monitoring and evaluation not referenced
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
No evidence provided.
Conclusions:
No conclusions drawn based on lack of information.
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Alto Perú
A partnership of Peru Muaythai Federation and Embassy of Thailand, Peru
Geographical scope: Chorrillos District, Lima, Peru
Type of martial art: Muaythai
Type of project: A community-based project focusing on youth living in informal settlements and poor communities through Muaythai and Surfing
Status: Active, launched 2008
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme snapshot
Structure:
Targeting at-risk youth in the poor urban setting of Chorrillos, Alto Perú use Muaythai and surfing to empower youth through the soft-skills gained through participation in both sports. The programme focuses on youth living in impoverished communities and informal settlements of Lima. Activities take place daily in the main office located in central Lima, with additional activities and partner programmes operating across the city in partnership with the Peruvian Muaythai Federation. Alto Perù has a strong community component, tracking the individuals and their relationships with their peers and families, as well as the broader community, such as incidences of violence by and against youth and teen pregnancy.
A core component of the programme is to mentor the youth and help them develop their interests, such as photography, film-making, music, and support them to gain relevant tertiary education in this area. Many youth have completed the programme and have chosen remain as instructors, some have become professional Muaythai athletes. Others have continued to work with the programme in different capacities, such as media and publicity. Surfing and muaythai are accompanied by educational programmes targeting different issues as identified by the instructors, such as low literacy rates, low self-esteem and a lack of opportunities.
In 2016, GRADE – Group for the Analysis of Development, conducted a comprehensive base-line study of Alto
Sustainability
Perú following their own sport for development theory (measuring micro, meso and macro changes), revealing detailed characteristics of the programme and the communities it serves. Operating in Lima for a decade, the organization is now well established and has accumulated considerable qualitative data on the transformations of the youth involved in their programmes. The baselines undertaken in 2016 form the basis for measuring precise changes over the next few years both at the micro and macro levels.
The majority of Alto Perú’s funding is via donation and crowd sourced, with larger established partners such as the Australian Embassy of Peru providing grants.
Links to relevant materials and websites:
http://www.altoperu.org https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o0FKvUOTLHs
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Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Notes by a UNESCO evaluator:
Overview:
A community-based Muaythai and surfing programme targetting children and youth living in impoverished areas of Lima City.
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
An issue and community based organization (targeting disadvantaged youth in impoverished areas of Lima, Peru)
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Children and youth living in the Chorrillos district of Lima, Peru
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
The programme has been active since 2008 and conducts daily activities informally with bi-weekly formal surfing and muaythai classes. The community office is open to all every day.
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
Clear objectives of supporting disadvantaged youth and creating social cohesion at the community level. Additional objectives around reduced violence and greater opportunities for employment
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Martial arts and surfing used as a way to attract and interact with youth Additional educational programmes delivered based on the needs of each group
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
No clear evidence of programme differentiation based on age of participants.
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
Males and females are treated in the same way. There is a fairly even gender divide between the participants.
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
There is a clear pedagogy, separated into three stages. It is not clear whether the pedagogy changes with the age of the participants.
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Yes, many are still engaged with the programme as leaders years after completing it.
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
Baseline study undertaken by independent organization, GRADE – Group for the Analysis of Development, in 2017 revealing community trends. The data gathered will be monitored and compared each year.
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
The programme is sustainable
Conclusions:
Alto Perú is a well established community-based programme that focuses on the delivery of two diverse sports: surfing and muaythai, as well as various other educational goals according to the specific needs of the group each year. Given its longevity and the recent partnership with GRADE to measure the impact of the programme in a more structured way, Alto Perú is one of the stronger and more effective programmes and would benefit from additional support to up-scale. From the evidence collected already, the impact on the lives of the individuals and the community is significant.
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Escuela Kawsay
A partnership of Peruvian Muaythai Association, managed by Peruvian youth activist, Giuliana Ovalle
Geographical scope: Lima, Peru
Type of martial art: Muaythai
Type of project: Neighbourhood youth constructing their own gym in the impoverished neighbourhood, Parque Bajo, Lima, Peru
Status: Active, launched 2016
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme snapshot
Structure:
Youth from Parque Bajo, a disadvantaged neighbourhood in Lima, Peru with high crime rates, are constructing their own gym on a rooftop donated to them by the local council. While the group have been meeting for several years in a makeshift “gym” in different locations around the neighbourhood, this is
the first time the local youth will have a permanent space.
With a strong focus on utilizing and promoting inclusive and open public spaces for sport, the gym will be open to all, with no fees for neighbourhood youth and low fees for others wishing to join and train Muaythai professionally.
The construction began in October 2017 and was finished in December 2017. The gym had been open for six months at the time of the review. UNESCO will provide technical support for the project, inviting the gym to adapt the framework designed for “Transforming Cities through Sport” in Manila, Philippines in 2017.
Sustainability
While the majority of youth involved in the gym are boys between 12–18 years old, the manager is a young woman and she is focused on encouraging girls and young women to join. At this stage there is no separate programme for different sexes.
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Notes by a UNESCO evaluator:
Overview:
A community based Mauythai programme targeting disadvantaged youth in the Parque Baj neighbourhood of Lima, Peru
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
Physical rejuvenation of gym in public area, daily Muaythai lessons, additional support by youth-leaders on a case-by-case basis
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Children and youth living in the Parque Bajo district
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
The Peruvian Muaythai Federation has taught their sport in the neighbourhood at an ad-hoc basis for several years. They are now delivering daily lessons in a new permanent location. Additional psycho-social support is given to the youth through other young mentors at an ad-hoc basis.
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
The specific objectives are not year clear, although inclusion of all youth regardless of sex, ability or any other distinction is embedded into the structure, however the gym is not making a specific effort to target youth of different abilities at this stage.
Additional objectives around reduced violence by and against youth and greater opportunities for employment are embedded into the gym’s core goals.
The gym also seeks to provide professional training in muaythai and opportunities for members to participate in national, regional and international competitions through the Federation.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Martial arts used as a way to attract and interact with youth from an impoverished and vulnerable community
Additional educational programmes delivered based on the needs of each group
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
No clear evidence of programme differentiation based on age of participants.
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
Males and females are treated in the same way although there are currently very few female participants (roughly 2/20 in total)
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
There is no clear pedagogy at this stage
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Yes, the same youth that have been involved in the Peruvian Muyahtai Federation for years are now trainers
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
Not at this stage
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
The local government has provided the space free of charge and the school relies on donations from the Peruvian Muaythai Federation
Conclusions:
Given the strong support by the Peruvian Muaythai Federation, the gym has the opportunity to deliver very effective and well constructed youth development programmes, borrowing from the pedagogy developed by Alto Peru. As it is still in its first stages, a second evaluation should be carried out at the end of 2018.
It is excellent that the programme is run by a young women, which sends a positive message to the neighbourhood boys, challenging traditional gender stereotypes.
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Teen Moms
A project delivered by the Peruvian Muaythai Federation
Geographical scope: Lima, Peru
Type of martial art: Muaythai
Type of project: Muaythai lessons delivered by the Peruvian Muaythai Federation within a Government operated care centre for victims of sexual violence in Lima, Peru
Status: launched August 2017
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme snapshot
Structure:
Responding to a call for support by a Government- operated care centre for victims of sexual violence in Southern Lima, an impoverished neighbourhood of informal settlements, the Peruvian Muaythai Federation began sending female Muaythai trainers to provide support the young women living in the centre at an ad-hoc basis.
Left without sufficient resources and operated by an elderly volunteer, the centre was first supported financially by the Peruvian Government, however the provision of funds ended in December 2016. At this time, twenty young women (between the ages of 12 to 17, all victims of sexual assault and abandoned by their families), together with their babies lived in the centre.
As of December 2017, only six women and their infants remained in the centre. One of the infants had been removed by social services due to neglect, the mother appeared to be suffering from trauma at the time of the evaluation.
Presumably for the safety of the women and children, the centre does not permit men to enter the compound and the girls are kept in isolation from the community. This is very concerning as the victims are not able to form positive relationships with males and are not being reintegrated into the community. Most are terrified to leave. These young women are
Sustainability
in desperate need of psychological support. Some of the victims are still children (12 years) and do not have any formal education. The young women are not permitted to remain in the centre after they turn 18, there is no follow-up programme to support them once they leave.
Since August 2017, female volunteers from the Peruvian Muaythai Federation visit the Centre every Sunday to train with the young women and provide psycho-social support. Additional experts, such as child psychologists, are called in on an ad-hoc basis. The Federation will begin introducing male trainers into the programme to help the young women to develop positive relationships with men.
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Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Notes by a UNESCO evaluator:
Overview:
An issue-based Muaythai programme targeting female victims of sexual assault under 18 years of age in a community centre in Lima, Peru.
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
Weekly Muaythai lessons and ad-hoc psycho-social support (child psychologists) based on needs and the availability of funding.
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Yes, six young women (those living in the compound), victims of sexual assault.
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
Once weekly, on-going (active since August 2017).
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
The specific objectives could be more defined, although the programme is without funding and running by the goodwill of the Peruvian Muaythai Federation. The current objectives are to provide reliable external support to the young women and some form of physical activity weekly. Additional objectives include instilling a sense of hope in the young women that they can join the Muaythai community after leaving the centre.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Weekly Muaythai lessons, additional support (talking groups) and ad-hoc child psychologist interventions
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
The age group is very specific
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
The programme is designed for young women
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
There is no clear pedagogy at this stage
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
No, although the interventions are led by young women
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
Not at this stage
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
There is no process for sustaining the programme, additional funds are urgently required
Conclusions:
This programme is responding to an urgent situation where young women have been neglected by their families. The centre does not have the resources to provide for them. This is an excellent example of how martial arts are used to empower and support young women in very challenging situations. It is too early to learn the real impact of the programme on the young women’s lives, although in nearly one year since the launch, the young women are very committed to the sport and their Muaythai skills have advanced considerably.
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East LA Muaythai
An joint initiative launched in partnership with the United States of America Muaythai Federation (USMF), the Mexican Muaythai Federation (MMF) and a local muaythai gym in East Los Angeles.
Geographical scope: East Los Angeles, United States of America
Type of martial art: Muaythai
Type of project: A community project initiated by Muaythai Pan-American champion, David Huerta using Muaythai to support at-risk youth in East Los Angeles
Status: Active, launched November 2017
Frequency
Length
Objectives
Personal development
Education
Target
Programme snapshot
Structure:
Sustainability
Launched in November 2017, the East Los Angeles Muaythai gym conducts bi-weekly (twice a week) Muaythai sessions provided free of charge to neighbourhood children and youth (under 18 years). The programme is sport-based with additional components such as art lessons, discussion groups and free dinners (provided by the Mayor of Los Angeles’s office).
Given the particular demographic of the community (96.7% Latino residents of which 25% of residents 25 years and older do not have a high-school diploma), the gym intends to provide free legal advice to all participants related to immigration law, without singling out any one individual.
The project is funded in-part by the President of the Mexican Muaythai Federation and TV personality, Elisa Salinas, who has a personal relationship with the Mayor of Los Angeles. The gym and USMF have expressed interest in adapting an evaluation framework to up-scale, monitor and evaluate their programme.
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Part three: Examples of youth development through martial arts
Notes by a UNESCO evaluator:
Overview:
A sport-based martial arts programme using Muaythai to provide opportunities for youth to participate in physical activity and to provide on-going psycho-social support
1 . Nature of programme delivery organization:
Bi-weekly Muaythai lessons, additional support session (discussion group) and ad-hoc legal advice.
2 . Were programme participants clearly identified?
Yes, girls and boys (9–18 years). The programme is designed for youth living in East LA, specifically those from immigrant and disadvantaged families.
3 . What was the scope of participation (months of participation, sessions per week etc.)?
Twice weekly, on-going (active since November 2017).
4 . Were programme objectives clearly articulated?
The programme objectives are somewhat articulated.
5 . What components did the programme deliver
Bi-weekly Muaythai lessons, additional support (talking groups) and ad-hoc child psychologist interventions.
6 . Did the programme provide different activities for children and youth of different ages?
The age group is specific (9-18 years).
7 . Did the programme take into account gender differences?
None reported.
8 . Did the programme identify the pedagogy used, and did the pedagogy change with the age of the participants.
There is no clear pedagogy at this stage.
9 . Did the programme train local youth leaders?
Not at this stage.
10 . Was there a robust monitoring and evaluation process in place?
Not at this stage.
11 . Was a process for sustaining the programme in place?
The programme is currently supported by Elisa Salinas. The gym is focusing on finding additional support.
Conclusions:
This gym has potential to become a community institution, delivering a unique sport in a community where youth are in particular need. A second evaluation should be conducted at the end of 2018 to determine the progress since its launch in November 2017.
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3 .2 Conclusions
Based on the curated intervention programmes 6 . reported above, some broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the value of martial arts as a youth development tool.
Very few programmes collect data beyond names of participants and dates of activities.
It is very difficult to monitor effectiveness and ensure a systematic cycle for development and improvement in the programmes is in place. This makes it difficult for any type of evaluation of effectiveness to be undertaken.
Many programmes are reliant on external funding, and are vulnerable to that funding being withdrawn. One potential way to mitigate this problem would be through creation of social enterprises that used martial arts to first train and education participants and as they develop use them as instructors in satellite fee-paying martial arts schools.
1 . Many martial arts organizations actively seeks opportunities to improve the lives of youth through a range on sport activities targeting youth issues. The degree of professionalism and quality of these programmes varies.
2 . Martial arts have strong potential as tools for youth development. The success of such programmes is realted to quality of design and implementation.
3 . The articulation of clear objectives and pedagogies varies (but is often absent) making it difficult to evaluate success.
4 . Successful programmes appear to have three things in common, whether they are run by sport organizations, issue-based organizations, or location specific organizations. The commonalities are:
a . Sport is used to attract and retain participants.
b . In addition to sport participation, additional interactions or services are offered or provided. These are frequently educational, health, or related to either social services support or employment opportunities.
c . The programmes make significant efforts to connect participants to their local community.
5 . In general, programmes do not have (or at least
do not clearly report) well defined targeted participants beyond “youth” or “disadvantaged youth”. The consequence of this is that programmes rarely have objectives, activities,
or evaluations that are optimal for all ages of participants, and do not appear to differentiate between males and females. The exceptions to this are programmes designed to empower females, but even here, there is little appreciation for how age/developmental differences influence optimal programming.
7 .
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PART FOUR
YOUTH DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES FOR MARTIAL ARTS ORGANIZATIONS
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Part four: Youth development principles for martial arts organizations
This set of draft principles is designed to assist martial arts organizations in determining whether or not they have in place policies, procedures and support to best protect all members of the organization; including participants, youth leaders, adult instructors and volunteers, and the organization’s management and governance personnel. They outline the requirements for martial arts organizations working with children and youth to ensure they are taking all reasonable precautions for the safety and protection of participants in their care.
The principles draw from key elements of a range of international documents relating to sport including the Kazan Action Plan, the Draft International Standards for Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Sport, developed by the International Safeguarding Children in Sport Working Group1 and the Olympic Charter, as well as from guiding documents on youth development such as the UN Youth System-wide Action Plan2 and the UN Youth Strategy3. The draft principles consider not only safety issues, but personal development and universally agreed development standards.
These preliminary twelve principles should be considered in project design. These will be further developed in the production of the next stage of the project. Principles 1 to 4 should be mandatory regardless of whether the programme is primarily focused on training in a specific sport or martial art. Principle 5 and onwards will assist to achieve a higher degree of social outcomes and personal development. The last four are principles that start to move towards a transformative programme that is very deep, not only in learning about the martial art and the skills involved, but a range of attributes that contribute to strengthen youth ownership.
Some additional areas for development are indicated as sub-principles.
Principle 1: Policy (1)
Each programme should have a written policy document outlining its objectives, activities and resources, endorsed by the executive and available to all participants and parents. This should be regularly
1 UNICEF UK International Safeguarding Children in Sport Working Group (2013)
2 United Nations (2013) 3 United Nations (2018)
reviewed and up-dated to reflect international and national standards from the peak sporting body, national laws and local by-laws and human rights.
1 .1 Establishing a monitoring and evaluation feedback cycle (sub-principle to be developed)
Principle 2: Safety (1)(2)
There are a several factors critical to safeguarding children and youth and the forms available in the annexes elaborate on these. The nature of martial arts mean that the sport itself entails physical risks. The setting may contribute further to a range of other risks. They include:
● Organisational policy on safeguarding children and youth
● Trained and responsible personnel operating under guidelines that prioritize safe-guarding
● Written consent procedures
● Adequate supervision
● Use of safety equipment including protective clothing
● Adequate first aid equipment and procedures
● Procedures for participants to safely and
confidentially report abuse or harm of any type
Principle 3: Health (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Ensuring good health means covering sanitation, hygiene, nutrition and physiology. This standard applies to the setting of the programme (clean environment), the personnel, the activities and the learning outcomes that can accompany the programmes.
3 .1 Fighting non-communicable disease (sub-principle to be developed)
3 .2 Addressing aggression and violent behaviour (sub-principle to be developed)
Principle 4: Gender equality (2)(5)
Programmes should be equally accessible for young women and men, as well as young people who identify as other genders. This includes providing for specific physical, social and cultural issues; ensuring there is no discrimination; and providing safe spaces for all young people, regardless of their gender.
4.1 Fostering female empowerment (sub-principle to be developed)
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Part four: Youth development principles for martial arts organizations
Principle 5: Inclusion (2)(3)(5)
Programmes should be accessible for young people from different backgrounds and take steps to account for specific needs such as disability, religion, culture, race and socio-economic status. Providing opportunities for young people from minority or vulnerable groups will add richness to the experience of all the participants. It is not always possible to take into account the needs of every group as some are highly specialised, but efforts should be made to provide a range of opportunities, ensure there is no discrimination and provide a safe space.
5 .1 Intercultural dialogue (sub-principle to be developed)
5 .2 Intergenerational dialogue (sub-principle to be developed)
Principle 6: Education (2)(3)(5)(6)(7)
Programmes offer many opportunities for added educational values in areas such as language, expression, literacy and numeracy. Additional activities can be developed to target education in certain areas as needed in the local communities through developing specific learning curricula to address these.
6 .1 Definedpedagogy(sub-principletobedeveloped)
The skills attained in training for martial arts have applications in many areas, including in the livelihoods of the participants. Attention can be given to strengthening specific skills that foster economic empowerment.
Principle 8: Heritage (3)
Given the strong connection between martial arts and culture, understanding the heritage of the tradition of the sport and the community heritage from which it grew is intrinsic to developing a deep connection to the sport. It also enables participants to appreciate cultural diversity and heritage, which can be applied in other aspects of their lives.
Principle 9: Community (2)
Connecting to local communities adds significant
value to the social cohesion aspects of sport. This might
be the community of practitioners, the community in which they live, the wider community of youth or other specific social groups that can be connected in the wider community. Embedding the experience in a community strengthens the ability of a programme to provide support and nurturing to the participants and build linkages that go beyond their time in the programme.
Opportunities for personal development are critical to providing positive psycho-social outcomes. Developing team and leadership skills will reinforce aspects of the sport where these skills are developed and help young people recontextualize the skills into other aspects of their lives.
Principle 11: Participation (6)(8)
Involving young people in the programme implementation turns them from passive recipients to active participants. It not only changes the experience and the things that can be learned from it, it provides the opportunity to actively apply the learning, which further reinforces everything learned. It gives an opportunity for young people to shape and design activities that specifically target their needs.
Principle 12: Ownership (2)(6)(7)(8)
Moving beyond participation, ownership enables young people to take charge and fully realize everything they have been learning about. Activities, such as peer learning, are extremely effective in reaching out to other young people.
Supporting international standards and related documents:
(1) Draft International Standards for Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Sport
(2) Kazan Action Plan
(3) Olympic Charter
(4) Global Action Plan on Physical Activity (5) Sustainable Development Goals
(6) UN Youth SWAP
(7) ODI Investing in Youth
(8) UN Youth Strategy
Principle 7: Economic empowerment (2)(5)(6)(7)
Principle 10: Team-building & Leadership (8)
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